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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном - Реферат

Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном - Реферат









По дисциплине: Английский язык

на тему:

"Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном"



Ефимова Ю.Е.


г. Камышин

2004 г.


  2. Mutual Trade.
  3. Cooperating in oil gas and power sphere.
  4. Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.



In a context of events, which have taken place in region after September 11, the role of Russia in Central Asia a little has varied, as well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years.

In these conditions of one of important external policies of tasks of Kazakhstan is the adjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia, which would correspond by modern geopolitical realities and long-term interests of our country.

Central Asia and Caspian Sea go into a region of traditional interests of Russia.

In this region it always had the important national interests, which, however, in different periods were defined by different circumstances and factors.

The key interests of Russia in this region at the present stage can be reduced to the following.

Central Asia has the important value in a safety of Russia.

The importance of this region for Russia is stipulated not oil but the factor implying from desire to save influence on Caspian Sea;

Kazakhstan region is of interest for Russia territory, where its compatriots live. Are those, on our sight three dominating interest of Russian Federation, dominating, Caspian – Central Asia region at the present stage. It in this region has also other interests trade, cosmotron of "Baikonur", industrial communications etc. but now in basic they carry not so priority character.

Until recently Russia ensured above-mentioned interests without the special efforts. All countries of region in the majority were that or are otherwise dependent on Russian Federation. But the events, which have occurred after September of the last year, have brought in serious enough variations to a geopolitical situation in Central Asia and have affected on common position of forces in region.

One of the occurred key variations consists in that the break in sphere of traditional vital interests of Russia is watched which today faces to necessity Central Asia of policy.

As a whole by 2001 in Central Asia the private tripartite balance between interests of Russia, China, USA was folded.

The given balance can figuratively be presented as a triangle, in which upper corner Russia, in one lower corner - USA, in the friend - China settled down. These countries have occupied three strategic niches in Caspian – Central Asia region: military-political, oil and gas, commodity-raw.

The Russian presence at region last years was ensured, first of all, with strategic military-political component. A peaking of a problem extremism and the terrorisms in Central Asia, activation Islamic of driving of Uzbekistan, irreconcilable part of Integrated Tadjik opposition at immediate support Talib have established in 1999 - 2001 real threat for the countries of region.

In these conditions only Russia was considered by the states of region as the real factor of safety. It is enough to recollect, that these years intensive two-sided ratios in military and military-engineering sphere were especially made active.

Thus, USA has occupied oil and gases niche in the region, and Russia and China by virtue of economic circumstances could not compete with it in this direction.

In this geopolitical triangle Russia all the same occupied a little bit dominating positions. This majoring in many respects was determined by strategic military-political component, which role in the international ratios is traditionally high.

In a context of a common global situation Russia forced to be reconciled with a determination of military basses of USA in region of its traditional interests.

Taking into account all these circumstances, Russia faces to necessity of the policy in Central Asia. The further prolongation above-mentioned tendencies will have painful enough consequences for it.

Despite of some variation of a role of Russia in Central Asia, for Kazakhstan the strategic interests in a ratio of Russia continue to be saved.

The necessity of activation of ratios with Russia and holding of constructive cooperating on much important directions for Kazakhstan is dictated as well by that in case of essential weakening of Russia in Central Asia it will be fraught with negative consequences. The situation in region can become unstable and badly forecast.

In the whole traditional interests of Kazakhstan in a ratio of Russia are founded on four factors having long-time character.

First, the maintenance partner of ratios with Russia is necessary valid intercontinental of an arrangement of Kazakhstan, for which the exit on the world market is vital for an economic development. Russia in this respect occupies the strategically important position; being by the state, on which region pass vital strategy of transport and communication.

Secondly, Russia is one of the important subjects of the international system, having significant political weight and rather large military-engineering opportunities. The Russian factor in many respects determines external policy in a situation around of Kazakhstan, both on regional, and at the international level.

Thirdly, Russia is the major economic partner Republic of Kazakhstan. It not only imports different production and techniques to Kazakhstan, but also is the market of selling of Kazakhstan production. About 70 % of Kazakhstan industrial potential is involved on economy.

In - fourth, both states are combined with a historical generality, spiritual and cultural links. In region of Russia the man is Kazakh Diasporas including 740 thousand. In Kazakhstan Russians are second on number ethnic group, making about 30 percents of the population of the country.

In this context the Russian direction of exterior policy of Kazakhstan remains to one of priority and strategic.

As a whole at the present stage in the Russian-Kazakhstan ratios the following most priority and perspective directions of cooperating are meant:

• Mutual trade.

• Interaction in oil and gas and power sphere.

• Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.

• Cooperating in sphere of safety.

2. Mutual Trade.

The interests of both countries are answered with magnifying of mutual trade. Russian Federation traditionally occupies the first place among the basic trade partners of Kazakhstan both on export, and on import.

It is necessary to mark, that last years the growth of a share of Russian Federation in import and reduction in export is watched. The specific gravity of Russia in total amount of the Kazakhstan export is sequentially reduced and is augmented in import. Within several last years Kazakhstan has negative trade balance with Russian Federation.

Considering structure of export and import on groups of the commodity spectrum, it is possible to select the following characteristic features.

Export. Structure of export Republic of Kazakhstan in Russian Federation for the last few years has varied, the separate commodity groups have occupied a leading position.

Now on four commodity groups (fuel mineral, oil and petroleum; products of inorganic chemistry; grain bread and ores) are necessary about 80 % of the Kazakhstan export in Russia, whereas in 1994 on the pointed groups it was necessary 53,3 %. In 2001 as contrasted to 2000 the separate outbound delivering tended to lowering, so, for example, the specific gravity of export of a grain was reduced from 12 % up to 6 %; the export of products of inorganic chemistry was reduced from 14 % up to 13 %. Certainly, on lowering of export in Russia renders influence a variance between the in-house prices and prices of outbound delivering.

At the same time it is necessary to mark, that the reduction of export has taken place not on all basic groups of the commodity spectrum. The specific gravity of export of ore has increased from 8 % up to 10 % and export of fuel from 46 % up to 47 %.

Import Republic of Kazakhstan goes into first five of the countries of the basic trade partners of Russia in import. The specific gravity of import of Russia has increased in total amount of the Kazakhstan import from 36,7 % per 1999 up to 45,4 % per 2001. There were insignificant variations in groups of imported commodity production. So, the volumes of import were reduced

The analysis of export and import displays, that in structure of import as against export there is no predominance of separate commodity groups at the same time a specific gravity of articles of food, products of processing ready articles grows.

From 89 regions of Russian Federation 72 have trade - economic links with Republic of Kazakhstan.