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American Cinema' - Реферат

Whenever she appeared she was cornered by excited admirers and photographers. But there was no private happiness behind the facade, and even her fame was not of the kind she would have liked. She resented her shallow roles; she resented the fact she had no voice in the choice of her scripts and that her old contract was keeping salary ridiculously low for a star. Hurt, she retaliated as best as she could. She arrived late on the set, unprepared and obviously indifferent to the hardships. She was imposing on the other actors and the technicians. Scenes had to be redone forty or fifty times because she could not remember a four-word sentence. If something displeased her, she locked herself in her dressing room, or failed to show up at all for days. Her behavior disgusted the people who worked with her, but her fans loved the radiant child-woman on the screen.

In 1961 after divorcing her next husband the famous American playwright Arthur Miller, Marilyn drifted back to the West Coast to open a new page in her life. On August 5, 1962 she was found dead in her house. She had made many attempts at suicide before. But it does not seem that she intended to hill herself that Saturday. When she retired for the night, she had plans for the next day. But early in the morning her housekeeper found her dead.

The world was shocked. In the words of one of her biographers: 'She broke her heart trying to achieve something she didn't have in her to accomplish.'

Walt Disney

Walt Disney was an American artist and film producer, who was famous for his animated cartoons. He was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, his father being Irish Canadian, his mother of German-American origin. In his early child hood he revealed a talent for drawing and an interest in photography. His teens he began an art course, but World War I broke out and he drove for the Red Cross in Europe. When he got back to America he met artist Ub Iwerks, 'and they went into business together.

In 1923 he left with his brother for Hollywood Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks made a series of short cartoons but lost all their money, and for some years struggled against poverty. Luckily, Walt's brother Roy gave him more to start up again. The first talking picture came out in 1927 and Disney realized that sound held the key to the future of films. He developed many techniques in producing cartoons.

His most famous characters are Mickey Mouse, Duck and Pluto. The first Mickey Mouse cartoon was drawn 1928. It was the first sound cartoon, which brought great success to its creator. In the early cartoons he was really horrible. He looked quite rat-like with long pointed nose and small eyes.

Later his face changed. His head got as big as his body or almost, his eyes got bigger, too. He got younger instead of older. That makes him cuter. Now it is an acceptable symbol for the USA. Donald Duck was created in 1936. Walt Disney took the biggest risk of his career and spent a fortune on a full-length cartoon. Finally, the first full-length cartoon feature film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" was brought out in 1935, which the public paid millions of dollars to see The songs to the cartoon were written by Frank Churchill. After the Second World War Disney turned his attention to real — life nature studies and non-cartoon films with living actors.

In the 1950's and 1960's, Walt Disney began developing the family-entertainment parks, Disneyland and Disney World. The first Disneyland was opened in southern California in 1955. It is situated 27 miles south of Los Angeles, at Anaheim. Of all the show-places none is as famous as Disneyland. This superb kingdom of fantasy linked to technology was created by Walt Disney. The park is divided into six themes and there is so much to see and do in each that no one would attempt to see all of them in one visit. For extended visits, there are hotels nearby. In 1971 Disney World was opened in Florida.

Walt Disney died in California at the age of 65. But his films are still shown regularly at the cinema, because of their time1esS quality and will be shown for years to come.Walter (Walt) Elias Disney has won more "Oscars" — the awards of the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, instituted on May 16, 1929 and named after Oscar Pierce of Texas, USA — than any other person:20 statuettes and 12 other plagues and certificates, including posthumous awards.

Titanic.

The shooting of 'Titanic' in 1997 brought people flocking to the cinemas. It has become a blockbuster and brought big profits to the producers. The reasons are:on the one hand, the thrilling plot of the film, depicting the first of the greatest disasters of the 20th century, and, on the other hand, new technologies of film making, used by James Cameron, the producer. Everybody wanted to see if the film was really worth eleven 'Oscar' awards.

'Titanic' is the latest screen version of the tragedy happened on April 14-15, 1912 during the maiden voyage of the British luxury passenger liner. The vessel sank with a loss of about 1,500 lives:men, women, children. Their voyage on board the dream ship ended in a nightmare. It revealted all human vices: arrogance, self-satisfaction, greed, selfishness and self-confidence. But at the same time this tragedy showed the best traits of humancharacter: the sense of duty and responsibility, self-sacrifice and short but immortial love. The love-story about Jack and Rose, a young poor artist and a 17-year old girl from the upper society, arouses uor sympathy and admiration. Paired with the main story-line, it adds much to the impression of the film. 'Titanic' made the leading actors Leonardo Di Caprio and Kate Winslent international celebrities. The music of James Horner created a special atmosphere in the film and has become popular with the public.

The film is interesting not only from the artistic point of view, but from the technical ones as well. Both the ship and the ocean are virtual, created by computers. Besides, we can see unique pictures of 'The Titanic' buried in the depth of the ocean. Its wreck was found lying in two pieces on the ocean floor at the depth of about 4,000 ..metres. The pictures were taken with the help of the Russian ocean-explores and shown to the whole world.

By the way, the film was directed by James Cameron, famous for creating very expensive films with new special effects, which were the biggest box-office success. 'Titanic' is not an exception. Critics say the film has opened a new era in film production. I think they are right.

Literature.

  1. In The USA. Martha Bordman

  2. Introducing The USA. Milode Broukol, Peter Murphy.

  3. Children's Britannica. Volume 7.

  4. Английский яык. Н.Г. Брюсов, Н. А. Лебедеваю

  5. США и Американцы. Г. В. Нестерчук, В. М. Иванова.

  6. Иностранные языки в школе №3.

  7. Иностранные языки в школе №6.

  8. Английский язык. Устные темы. А. С. Сушкевич, М. А. Маглыш.

Vocabularly.

Mothion picture industry - киноиндустрия

Release - выход на экран

Nervous breakdown - нервное расстройство

Mercilessly - безжалостно

To keep one's grip - продолжать овладевать умами

To hit the nail on the head - попасть прямо в точку

Skit - пародия

Antics - ужимки, шутки

Unheard-of - неслыханный

Reentry - возвращение

Flock - стекаться толпами

Plot - сюжет

Depict - изображать

Screen version - экранизация

Shooting - (кино) съемка

Nightmare - кошмар

Reveal - показывать, обнаруживать

Vice - порок, зло, недостаток

Arrogance - высокомерие, надменость

Trait of character - черта характера

Immortial - бессмертный, вечный

Wreck - остов разбитого судна

Direct - ставить (фильм)

Essential - необходимый

Indispensable - незаменимый

Trade skills - профессиональные

Aim - стремиться

Be at one's disposal - быть в чьем-то распоряжении

Facilities - возможности, удобства

Inspiration - вдохновение

Enrich - обогощать

Genre - жанр

Aspiration - стремление, желание

Pricless - бесценный

Spitting image - точная копия

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