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American Cinema' - Реферат

Monroe first attracted notice in "The Asphalt Jungle", thereafter she became a reigning screen siren. Her major films include "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes", "The Seven Year Itch", "Bus Stop" and "Some Like It Hot".

While still in her thirties, she died of an overdose of sleeping pills.

To many people, Marilyn Monroe is a tragic symbol of the unhappiness that can accompany fame and glamor.

Murphy, Eddie (1961—) — an actor and comedian who first became known for his work on the television program "Saturday Night Live" but now is known mostly for his films, such as "Trading Places" and "Beverly Hills Cop".

Newman, Paul (1925—) — an actor and director, lending male star of Hollywood films in the 1900s and 1970s and considered very attractive. His films include "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid", "The Sting", "The Color of Money", etc.

Nicholson, Jack (1937—) — an actor who started appearing in films in the l960s, such as "Easy Rider'' which represented the feelings of young Americans, and has now become a big Hollywood star.

Pacino, Al (1940—) — an actor, known for the films such as "The Godfather" and "Scarface".

Poitier, Sidney (1927—) — a black Amer ican film star and director, who was one of the first black actors to play serious parts rather than black stereotypes.

Pryor, Richard (1940-)- a comedian who has appeared in films and made several records. He is black and often makes jokes about situations involving black and white people together.

Redford, Robert (1937—) — a film actor and director who was in films such as ''Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid'',"The Sting" and "Out of Africa". He is popular for his good looks as well as his acting.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947—) — an American actor, born in Austria, whose bodybuilding appearance won him the titles of Mr. Gcrriiaiiy and Mr. Universe. He is best known for his part in the film "The Terminator" in which he plays the hero.

Scott, George C. (1926—) — an actor, best known for his film parts, especially strong-willed characters, such as soldiers. He was the first actor to refuse an Oscar.

Streisand, Barbra (1942—) — a singer and actress who has performed on stage and in many successful film musicals, including "Hello, Dolly", "The Way We Were", "A Star is Born", etc.

Taylor, Elizabeth (1932—) — an American film actress, born in Britain. She began making films at the age of ten, but is perhaps at least as well known for marriages, of which there have been eight (two of them to Richard Burton).

Temple, Shirley (1928—) — a film actress who was the child star of over 20 films in the 1930s, and in later life, as Shirley Temple Black, became a US ambassador. She was very popular when her films first appeared because of her style of singing, dancing and acting and her curly golden hair.

Valentino, Rudolph (1895—I926) — an American film actor, born in Italy. He was famous for playing the part of a lover in silent films, especially in "The Sheikh". He is sometimes mentioned as a typical example of a good-looking romantic man. Valentino was a ballroom dancer and movie extra before reaching stardom in "Four Horsemen in the Apocalypse" (1921).

Soon he became the American women's idea of masculinity, and his private life and loves were avidly reported in newspapers and magazines. His physique, his good looks and his physical grace were well exhibited in "The Sheikh" and "Monsieur Beaucaire". Valentino's most successful film is "Blood and Sand", for here he seems able to bring some of his own personality to the portrayal of the matador, an opportunity his other, more stereotyped roles had thwarted. His untimely death created a national furor and reportedly drove some of his fans to suicide.

Wayne, John (1907-1979) - a film actor who often played "tough guys", particularly soldiers and cowboys.

Early in his career Wayne appeared as Hollywood's first singing cowboy. In 1939, in "Stagecoach", he achieved star status. In his 50-year career he appeared in more than 200 motion pictures. Some of his outstanding films are "Red River", "The Quiet Man", "The High and Mighty", "The Searchers", "True Grit", for which he won an Academy Award (1969), and "Shootist".

The characters John Wayne played, especially in Westerns ("Stagecoach", "True Grit"), were often honest, strong, independent and patriotic. Because he played these characters, John Wayne was thought to have those qualities himself and was an example of a good American. His old-fashioned patriotism made him something of a folk hero. In 1979 he was voted a Congressional gold medal; the inscription read, "John Wayne — American".

Williams, Robin (1952—) — an actor and comedian whose films include "Good Morning, Vietnam", "Dead Poets Society", etc.

Marilyn Monroe.

I think that the greatest actress not only of the USA, but of the whole world is Marilyn Monroe. So I 'd like to tell some facts about her life.

Six queens come and go, easily crowned, easily forgotten. Yet Marilyn Monroe's memory has remained very much alive. Admirers still cut her picture out of public library books, artists still paint her; even the young have become familiar with her name and her face by watching her films on television.

Death has changed the sexy blonde into a myth, a symbol of soft femininity and loveliness. Nowadays she is sometimes mistaken for a saintly martyr, which she certainly was not. But then, what was she? Those who knew her disagree so violently that it is difficult to see the real woman through the conflicting judgments of her friends. A simple little girl to her first husband, producer Mike Todd, she was also been described as the most unappreciated person in the world, the meanest woman in Hollywood, a tart, an enchanting child, an idiot, a wit, a great natural intelligence, a victim, and a clod 'user' of people From the very contradiction, one can guess that she was not simple. And obviously she had something special- not talent, perhaps, but a certain spark. It is well known that most of her problems had their roots in an unhappy childhood.

Marilyn had come into the world in a Los Angel's hospital as Norma Jean Mortensen. Her mother, Gladys Monroe Mortensen, loved her child; but since she had to work, she left her in the hands of Ida and Albert Bolender, a respectable couple who boarded children on their farm. Norma Jean spent her first seven years with them. Her physical needs were well looked after, and Gladys visited faithfully every weekend. But when she had gone, there was not much warmth around the little girl. For Norma Jean, who was extremely sensitive, it was a lonely, distressing childhood. In 1933 Gladys bought a house and took her daughter home with her. But she was not there much and when she was out, Norma Jean had to stay with the elderly couple who rented part of the house. They were not bad people, only indifferent and more interested in drinking than in baby-sitting. When Norma Jean didn't have to go to school, the couple dropped her at a nearly movie house in time for the first afternoon show. The little girl watched happily all day, and after the last matinee she walked home by herself. In her room, later, she would act out the whole story. In this way she developed a passion for acting that she never outgrew. After nine months of live together, Gladys had a mental collaps and was hospitalized. She appeared from time to time in her daughter's life, but more as a burden than as a support. Many people took Norma Jean under their wings throughout the years. She looked so insecure, so defenseless, that men and women alike felt compelled to protect her.

However vague Norma Jean may have been about life in general, she never felt vague about the career she wanted to have. She wanted to be an actress. But the first three years of Marilyn's career didn't bring her more than a few very small parts. She kept herself alive by modeling. In 1950 Marilyn attracted attention in a small part in 'The Asphalt Jungle', which had been obtained for her by a powerful protector. Another protector, and the most influential by far, was the agent Johnny Hyde. Hyde was a powerful man in Hollywood when he met Marilyn. He was too wise to claim that she had talent; instead he insisted that such personality didn't need to be talented. He succeeded in getting her a part in 'All About Eve', a film that was to prove lucky for all its actors. The font mail started piling up. The Hollywood columnists included the new blonde in their gossip columns. Soon 'Life and Look' magazines were honoring her with long articles, and one critic ventured to declare her 'a forceful actress'. The studio, after having her co-star in several pictures, finally gave her a starring role in 'Niagara' in 1953. She had become the Fox's biggest moneymaker.

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