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Genetically modified food - Реферат

If we speak about cloning someone, who has already died, the question of restriction of quantity of clones-twins will become a reasonable theme for reflections and debates. Moreover, we will have a lot of time for these debates. Certainly, if there are some individuals with identical appearance it will not lead to degradation of human essence of these people. [5]

Cloning of died people.

There is the little-known fact about doctor Vilmut's procedure of cloning. It is said to be made with frozen cells. It means that there is no necessity for cloning, that donor of DNA must be alive. If the sample of a fabric of the person is frozen properly, the person could be cloned through long time after his death. In case of people, which have already died also whose fabrics was not frozen, cloning becomes more complex, and today's technology does not allow making it. However, for the biologist it would be very courageous to declare, that this procedure is impossible.

All fabrics of people contain DNA and can potentially be a source for cloning. The list of fabrics includes human hair, bones and teeth. Unfortunately, DNA starts to decay and destroy segments of genetic code some weeks after death. After 60 million years only short fragments DNA of dinosaurs were kept. Therefore, chances of realization of guiro-park are insignificant. However, there are good chances of restoration of sequence DNA from samples of a human fabric. Imagine a genetic code as a book which paragraphs or pages were left in the casual image. If we have only one copy of the book, the full text cannot be restored. Fortunately, we have more, than one copy. There can be thousands of cells in a bone or a sample of a fabric. Each of them has its own copy of DNA code. It is possible to restore an initial genetic code by combining the information from many cells. One more encouraging factor is that only small percent from three billions symbols of a genetic code of a person is responsible for individual distinctions. For example, genetic codes of monkey and people coincide on 99%. It means that it is necessary to restore less than 1% of a code, i.e. only that part which defines individual distinctions between people. Certainly, all this tasks are essentially feasible. [9]

One more opportunity, which gives cloning of human being, can lay in partial correction of mistakes of the past. Probably, many millions of Nazi concentration camps victims could be cloned for restoration of the lost genetic branches. The same technology, which would clone Adolph Hitler, is possible to use to clone Anna Frank. Cloning of a human being would be the first offer of the world Jewish public as the constructive answer to the Holocaust. The serious concern in genofund pauperization still exists in Russia. It caused by Stalin's mass executions of the best and brightest members of a society. Cloning could give a chance of a new life to people of the past, whose lives were unfairly and finished early.

The first genetically modified monkey.

On January 11, 2001 in the USA the first genetically modified monkey was born. It was named Andy. This name means "inserted DNA" in return perusal.

The monkey was born from ovule in which (маркерный) gene was included. This gene can be seen with the help of a special microscope. Scientists speak, that similar technology can be used for strong modification of genetic material. With the help of this modification, it is possible to enter genes of human diseases, for example, a cancer of a breast.

"We can easily make introduction, for example, a gene of Altsgamer's illness to speed up manufacture of a vaccine against this disease", - told one of researchers, Professor Dzherald Satan.

Altsgamer's Illness is the specific form of senile dementia (full degradation of the person and disintegration of intelligence).

Cloned kitten was sold for $50 000.

Biotechnological company Genetic Savings and Clone (GSC), located in California, has sold the first cloned kitten for $50 000.

A certain woman from Texas got the kitten. Her personal name is not disclosed because of fears of prosecution by opponents of cloning. Small Nikkei reminds its "parent" not only in appearance, but also in character and behaviour.

GSC Company is going to offer owners of died animals to get its copy.

For similar operation, future clients will need to hand samples of their animal's fabrics in a special depository. Alas, until now there are fears about smaller security of clones from every possible illnesses and infections, and also smaller duration of life. [9]

Stanford University will create the mouse with a human brain.

In 2005, the American National Academy of Sciences plans to present recommendations about ethical experiments on creation of chimeras. The chimera is the mutant, which combines cells, fabrics and parts of bodies of people and animals. Now in the USA the laws, which limit such experiments, do not exist. Meanwhile, the quantity of such experiments constantly increases.

In particular, director of Steam Cells Institute of Stanford University professor Irving Vajssman is going to carry out an experiment on creation of mice, which will have a human brain.

The scientist plans to enter human neurons into rodent's brain. Directly ahead of a birth the rodent will be killed. After opening of its brain, Vajssman hopes to learn, whether the architecture of a human brain will be generated. If it will take place, he will search for traces of "cognitive features", peculiar to people.

The Californian professor insists that his experiment will lead to the best understanding of mechanisms of work of a brain. It will be useful for struggle against a number of diseases.

Another experiment, which causes fear of the American academicians, is a creation of a human who will be born by mice. For this purpose, rodents will be genetically modified to make human gametes (sperm and ovules) from which a human embryo will be grown up.

The first hybrid embryos were created by the Chinese scientists from the Shanghai medical university in 2003. The scientists managed to connect cells of a human skin with ovules of rabbits. More than hundreds of embryos during several days developed in laboratory saucers. Then they have been destroyed for reception from them embryonic steam cells. [9]

Chronology of cloning.




Opening of ovule by the German cytologist Oscar Gertvig.


"Science" Magazine informed about successful fertilization of the ovule in a test tube.


Birth in England Louise Brown, the first child " from a test tube ".


Professor Shultz received three cloned embryos of the person, but stopped their development.


On January 4 in one of clinics of northern London the girl was born Her mother was Mrs. Cotton (the first-ever substitute mother who was not the biological mother).


Experts of G. Washington's University, using special enzyme, divided cells of a human germ and cloned them to a stage of 32 cells. Then germs were destroyed. American administration forbade such experiments.


On February 27, "Nature" placed on its cover on a background of a micro photo of ovule well-known Dolly, born in institute Roslyn in Edinburgh.


In the USA Michael Smith issued the book "Clones" in which he told about cloning of people in underground tunnels around of Los Angeles.


Right at the end of December magazine "Science" informed about a birth of six sheep. They were received on Roslyn's method. Three of them bore a human gene, which is necessary for people who suffer hemophilia.


Chicago physicist Sinai declares creation of laboratory on cloning of people: he asserted that there would not be release from clients at it.


In Moscow the American film "Newcomers. Revival" was shown. Storyline: In 22-century military researchers clone the terrestrial woman to withdraw a small unearthly essence, which was developing in her stomach).


The French scientists declared about the birth of the cloned cow.

II. Conclusion "The future development of cloning and genetic modification as I see it".