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Genetically modified food - Реферат

Several years ago, the humankind was shocked by reports in mass media about Dolly the Scottish sheep, which was represented as its founders assert, an exact copy of its genetic mother. American bull Jefferson and the bull, deduced by the French biologists appeared later. The prospect of work on cloning of a human being is publicly discussed.

The latest months enabled experts to comprehend soberly the situation, to estimate some methodical and technological difficulties lying in the field of mammal cloning. Cloning of a human being can create unsuccessful copies, ugly creatures, but all mankind will bear the responsibility for his or her ugliness. [3]

Problems facing to cloning.

Cloning of bodies and fabrics is the problem number one in the field of transplantology, traumatology and in other areas of medicine and biology. Cloned bodies become a kind of rescue for people who have got in automobile failures or any other accidents or for people who need radical help because of diseases caused by age.

The most evident effect of cloning is that childless people will be able to have their own children. Today millions married couples all over the world suffer because they are doomed to remain without descendants. In our country each sixth or seventh married couple is barren. This problem generates so many tragedies and family dramas! This situation can be changed. It is possible to have your own child, your real continuation in time. [2]

Cloning will help people who suffer genetic diseases.

And still. Fans of exotic things will always exist among humans. They bequeath to send their ashes on a rocket aside the Sun. They spend thousands of dollars for saving their bodies in cryogenic chambers till that time when medicine will manage to return them into a normal condition and to relieve them from illnesses which are incurable today. Moreover, there also will be fans of exotic things in the field of cloning. Somebody will wish to see his or her own copy during his or her lives. Others wish to revive during another historical epoch: 50 - 100 years later.

Cloning of the person: arguments in protection.

Cloning of a human person is close to reality due to historical scientific breakthrough of the doctor Yang Wilmot and his colleagues from Great Britain. This opportunity potentially gives all of us fabulous advantages. Unfortunately, misleading reports of mass-media and negative emotional reaction (which was generated by erroneous science fiction) influenced to the discussion of this theme. The negative attitude towards cloning of people is only consequence of fascinating and new idea. If the public entered into error will impose a full interdiction on cloning of a person, a sad episode in the human history would appear. [1]

What is the human clone?

Actually, the clone is not simply an identical twin of some other person and they differ in periods of time. However, science-fiction novels and films have created an impression as if human clones are thoughtless zombies, monsters like Frankenstein, etc. But it is complete nonsense. Human clones will be usual human beings, perfect as you and me. They will be born by usual women after 9 months of pregnancy; they will be born and will be grown up in a family, as well as any other child. They will need 18 years to become adults, as other people do. Hence, the clone-twin will be some decades younger than the original; therefore there is no danger, that people will confuse the clone-twin to the original. Just as identical twins, a clone and his donor of DNA will have various fingerprints. The clone will not inherit anything from memoirs of the original individual. Due to all these distinctions, the clone is not an x-copy or the double of his donor, but a younger identical twin. Human clones will have the same legal rights and duties, as any other person does. Clones will be human beings in the fullest sense. You will not have the right to use a clone as a slave. The slavery was forbidden in the USA in 1865 and then by the United Nations Convention of the Human Rights.

It is necessary to emphasize, that the cloning of human beings should be carried out on an individual voluntary basis only. The alive person, should give his or her legal permission. As well as the woman who will bear a clone-twin and then grow this child, should take her own decisions. The woman is required for cloning to bear the child. So, there is no danger that scientists-villains will create thousands of clones in confidential laboratories. Cloning will be done only after requests and with participation of usual people.

What can we expect from human clones? The answer can be found from exploration of identical twins. The clone repeats the original individual on appearance completely and has the same growth and a constitution. For well-known supermodels and movie stars, it can be the most important quality.

The objections, which are put forward against cloning of the person.

Some politics in the United States now suggest saving us from all misfortunes connected with cloning of people by legislation. In my opinion, it is an interesting idea but if you examine the problem more soberly, you will see that serious problems actually do not exist. In several cases when abusing is possible, it can be prevented with the help of legislation. Unique objection that remains because of the analysis is that the technology of cloning is not perfect yet. It is a justification for future researching, but not for an interdiction.

Cloning would reduce a genetic variety; make us more vulnerable to epidemics, etc.

More than 5 billion people exist on this planet. Obviously, cloning of people will carry out in very modest scales because of prospective cost of procedure. More than the majority of women will not want to be mothers of clones-twins. Many years will pass before the total of clones will reach even 1 million people all over the world. On percentage parity, it would make a microscopic part from the general population and would not influence to genetic variety of people. If in some long-term future cloning becomes widely widespread some restrictions on such activity will can be justified. If the clone of each person on a planet is created, a genetic variety will not decrease, there still will be 5 billion genetically various individuals.

It can lead to creation of monsters or ugly creatures.

Cloning is not the same as genetic engineering. During cloning DNA is copied. Then one more person appears an exact twin of an existing individual. Therefore, it is not monster or ugly creature. Genetic engineering would mean modification of human DNA. Therefore, there can appear another person, who will not look like to existing. It presumably could lead to creation of very unusual people, even monsters. Genetic engineering has big positive potential. It is valid very much and should be carried out only with the greatest care and under supervision. Cloning is safe and banal in comparison with genetic engineering. If you are afraid of cloning genetic engineering should horrify you.

Millionaires can clone themselves only to receive parts of bodies for transplantation.

This is one of silly applications for cloning. The human clone is a human being. In a free society, you cannot make somebody to give you one of his or her parts of body. In addition, you cannot kill other person to receive one of his parts of body. Existing laws interfere with such abusing. You must also notice that if your clone-twin has received a trauma in accident, you can be asked to give one of your kidneys to rescue a life to a clone! If donor of body is a child, society can wish to interfere. Actually, removal of any part of body of a child for transplantation to other person is very disputable practice, which should be adjusted strictly.

Many future appendices of technology of cloning appear in spheres of transplantation of bodies, skin transplantations for victims of fires, etc.

Do we need 200 clones of Sophie Loren or Sindi Crawford?

If we speak about cloning of an alive person, it is extremely improbable, that he will agree to creation of 200 clones. The person will approve creation no more than 1 or two clones. In addition, we shall recollect, that clones of the person cannot be made in laboratory in big quantity. Each of them should be mature by a woman, as well as any other child. How do critics of cloning represent that it is possible to persuade 200 women to bear these identical babies? If we really worry, that it is possible, the society can simply forbid creation more than two clones of one person.