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Small Business - Реферат

Kreditovaniye, 2001 http://www.hsbk.kz/default.asp?page=corporate&n=credit

Kreditovaniye, 2001 http://www.kkb.kz/banking_re/sber/service/06_credit.asp

Osnovniye prinzipi kreditovaniya MP, 2001 http://www.tacisinfo.ru/brochure/banksme/pzayav_m.htm

Sahauyeva Zhanar, 2001, interview

Yevropeyskiy bank rekonstrukzii I razvitiya, 2001 http://www.fund.kz/ebrr_c.html

  1. Data Analysis.

Now we will summarize all research paper.

It is very necessary to develop lending system in Kazakhstan. There are many reasons for this: small business creates new workplaces, form middle class, develop trade and production, and it was notices that mainly small business develops and invents new goods and services, because in that way small business has a chance to be marked and successfully manage the business. In order to carry out these functions, enterprises needs money to increase its turnover, employ more workers for development, buy new equipment, buildings, to make capital investments in other companies, etc. For these purposes enterprises are usually demanding money, but most banks most likely to give loans to increase turnover, this is connected with assurance of the loan. For example, our considered "Oasis" company took loan in order to increase working capital, may be bank was fulfilled by this purpose of the company and may be this was one of the reasons of receiving a credit.

There are many documents, demanded in banks from companies, which are trying to receive a loan. But the most important for decision-making is financial statements of the prospective borrowers. Many firms conduct double-accounting, this means, that they give one variant of the financial statements to tax commission and another to investors and banks. It is easy to understand why enterprises do so, they are trying to survive and cheat, and there are many reasons to do this, and one of them high taxes. But, banks know that enterprises conduct separate accounting for them and try to prevent it. For instance, Bank Centercredit, which lent money to "Oasis" company, demanded annual financial statements of the company, which were given up to the tax commission. It is difficult to run a business so, that its financial statements would satisfy banks and enterprises tax aversion.

Another important thing is meeting with representative of credit department of the bank. And it is necessary that your business left a good impression. You will have to show your business, show how it works, your equipment, employees, offices. Each enterprise have o meet with representative if company really wants to receive a loan.

A huge problems arises when enterprise have to assure a loan by giving a pledge to the bank. Two main problems are: that banks underestimate the cost of the pledge and difficulties with preparing documents confirming your ownership of the pledge. Banks prefer real estate as a pledge, but small enterprises do not have any buildings, because they are limited in money. Thus, our banks want more, than enterprises are able to allow themselves.

Important item in receiving a loan both for enterprises and banks is interest rates. As it is expected banks demand too high payment for lending money. Interest rates are too high and most enterprises do not asking for a loan because there will come a day and you will have to pay everything back with high payment for the banks services. Nevertheless, not everything is so bad, there are special programs of supporting small business, which offer lower interest rates, and this is a real chance for enterprises. However, arises another problem: there are too many firms, desiring to receive a loan on lower interest rate. Thus, increase control over maintenance, financial situation of the company, etc. Repayment date is also important, but banks usually make a personal schedule for repayment. Usually there are monthly payments with increasing interest rate.

We can see, that there is many difficulties arise with receiving a loan. Many problems due to banks want to ensure their loans, they want more safe, but enterprises are not able to suit banks' requirements, thus there are problems with documents, providing liquid enough pledge, meeting with representative of credit department and many-many others.

  1. Conclusion.

From the conducted research we can conclude, that enterprises meet with a very many problems, when they are trying to receive a credit. Our lending system needs to be improved. First of all, banks should be more indulgent to small enterprises, which are not able to meet some requirements of the banks, especially about pledge.

Secondly, there should be more programs on supporting small business, like decreasing interest rates, give credits for a more long periods of time, etc.

Thirdly, banks should stop working only with "big people" with "big money", but also help small enterprises to enter into market and freely functionate.

There some measures, which were applied in order to improve our lending system, and they are works, but there should be more support to small business, because it is so weak in Kazakhstan. Some enterprises, which are pretty big, rather than others, are gain on these programs, but there should be some support to the beginners.

  1. Bibliography.

  1. Blinov A. (1993) Razvitiye predprinimatelstvaEconomist No.6:70-73

  2. Dauanov I. (2000) Maliy biznes: problemi oformleniya kredita AlPari 5: 81,82

  3. Ershova G. (1995) Podderzka malogo predprinimatelstvaFinansi No.2:17-18

  4. Finansirovanie I kreditovaniye subyektov malogo biznesa, 2001 http://business.zakon.kz/fincredit/

  5. Isabekov A. (1997) Problemi razvitiya malogo I srednego biznesa v Kazakhstane Economika Kazakhstana No.5-6:120-123

  6. Karibayev A. (1997) Razvitiye malogo predprinimatelstva v Vostochno-Kazahstanskoi oblasti Economika Kazakhstana No.4:13-15

  7. Kazbekov S. (1998) Kogda ge mladenez vstanet na nogi?Finansi Kazakhstana No.11:74-75

  8. Kozizin S. (1997) Mal kredit da dorogFinansist No.3:15-19

  9. Krediti dlya malogo biznesa EBRR, 2001 http://www.fund.kz/ebrr_c.html

  10. Kreditovaniye, 2001 http://www.kkb.kz/banking_re/sber/service/06_credit.asp

  11. Law of Republic of Kazakhstan from 19 July 1997 N 131-1 O gosudarstvennoi poddershke malogo predprinimatelstva(with amendments to this law in 10.07.98 № 283-1; in 26.07.99 № 458-1; in 29.11.99 № 488-1)

  12. Mahanov Z. (1997) O rossiyskoy federalmoi programme gosudarstvennoy podderzke malogo predprinimatelstva Economika Kazakhstana No.9-10:79-84

  13. Mishin A. (1998) Investizionnaya podderzka malogo bisnesa PEZ No.5:61-70

  14. Mukhamedghanov G. (1997) Sistema gosudarstvennoy podderzke malogo I srednego predprinimatelstva v promishlenno razvitih stranahEconomika Kazakhstana No.9-10:116-121

  15. Osnovniye prinzipi kreditovaniya MP, 2001 http://www.tacisinfo.ru/brochure/banksme/pzayav_m.htm

  16. Sahauyeva Zhanar, 2001, interview

  17. Tukayev A. (1998) Analys raxvitiya malogo biznesa v KazakhstaneAl Pari No.2:69-74

  18. Turgulova A. (1999) Gde brat dengi na maliy busines?Finansi Kazakhstana No.8-9:115-118

  19. Umbetov A. (1999) The role of banks in small business creditAl Pari No.2:29-33

  20. Vilenskiy A. (1999) Finansovaya podderzka malogo predprinimatelstvaEconomist No.9:88-90

  21. Yevropeyskiy bank rekonstrukzii I razvitiya, 2001 http://www.fund.kz/ebrr_c.html

  1. Appendixes.

Appendix 1

Checklist.

Respondent: Ms. Sahauyeva Zhanar, the chief accountant of "Oasis" company.

  1. Information about company.

    1. For what purpose company was organized?

    2. Sources of funded capital (relatives, savings, sponsors)?

    3. In which sphere do you work (trade or production)?

    4. How many employees do company has?

2. Goals of receiving a loan.

2.1. How do you think, do small enterprises need to be credited?

2.2. How company used a loan?

2.3. What amount of gain did company received from the loan?

3. Loan.

3.1. In what bank do you prefer to receive a loan?

3.2. What liquid pledge did the company provide?

3.3. What interest rates did the company pay?

3.4. In which terms the company can made a repayment (monthly, quarterly or in the certain date)?

Appendix 2

Table #1

Regions

For the 1 October 1997

For the 1 April 1998

Parity of small business wages and region's (%)

Parity of small business wages and region's (%)

Akmolinskaya

64.5

74.9

Aktubinskaya

53.8

46.0

Almatinskaya

91.5

75.9

Almaty

80.2

70.9

Atirauskaya

52.2

50.3

Zhambilskaya

40.3

36.9

Karagandinskaya

38.3

35.6

Kizilordinskaya

45.2

41.9

Kostanayskaya

75.7

63.8

Mangistauskaya

75.2

66.7

Pavlodarskaya

63.5

55.9

Total

680.4

618.8

(Source: Tukayev, 1998).

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