B. Difficulties with preparing documents for receiving a loan.
Since half of the year 2000 banks simplified scheme for giving credits. Until year 2000 the main problem in preparing documents in order to receive a credit was business-plan, but now, after simplifying scheme, the main problem became – preparing annual financial statements, because banks intensify requirements for financial position and accounting documents. Why did they intensify? Now the majority of small enterprises and not only small conducts double accounting - one accounting for tax purposes and another for presentation to banks and investors. In financial statement for tax purposes, for example, the company decreases its revenue or has losses, in order to pay fewer taxes, and if this company will bring the same financial statements to the bank to borrow money, most probably the bank will deny for the loan.
Nowadays there are many organizations, which helps entrepreneurs to make up different kinds of documents like financial statements, pledge documents, which are demanded in banks, but there is absolute no guaranty that with this financial statements you will receive a credit, simultaneously services of these firms rather high.
In our interview, our respondent – Sahauyeva Zhanar, chief accountant of "Oasis", said, that there was more difficulties with annual financial statements, than with other documents. Representative of the credit department of Bank Centercredit demanded annual financial statement for the last two years, which was given to the Tax Committee of Republic of Kazakhstan. As was written before, some small companies conduct double-accounting, and banks know about this, that is why Bank Centercredit have demanded financial statements for tax purposes. By the way, "Oasis" company did not addressed to the companies that help enterprises to prepare necessary documents to gain a credit, but they received a credit. (op.cit).
This diagram shows in what level each factor influence on decision of the bank, when it is giving a credit to the enterprise. As we can see, the most important is financial report – 31%, that is why it is very important for the enterprise to prepare it in a best way. After financial statement of the company, follow market, which takes 16%, this means information about customers, suppliers and enterprises' borrowers, and lenders. The next is pledge –15%, we will consider it in more details later.
(Source of the diagram: Osnovniye prinzipi kreditovaniya MP, 2001).
Another problem is getting sanction for realization a project. This is due to difficulties with receiving confirmation in different state organizations. There are several supervising organs whose corroboration you have to receive, but they are varying depending on the project itself.
Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources regional representations
State Supervision of architecture and construction
Standardization and certification organs
Custom services (Dauanov I., 2000)
Mainly, because of imperfectness of our organs, and especially due to corruption, getting through the expertise takes 6 or more months.
C. Meeting with representative of credit department.
No credit can be given until a meeting of banker and entrepreneur. During this meeting borrower should show and tell about his business, how it works, in short, he should do the best to present his business. Banker will ask him questions about financial statements of the company, about revenues and losses, so borrower should be prepared for questions like
this. Credit interview is often held in bank or in enterprise office. By the way, entrepreneur should always offer to visit his office, and not only because owner is proud to present his business, but also to present additional information about his business like first appearance of the office, other rooms and buildings; site, neatness of the office; show employees, equipment. This information will improve impression of representative about business (Sahauyeva, 2001). Representative in his turn has to be in connection with borrower, keep abreast with the needs of the company, should offer bank in order to solve financial problems of the enterprise, and should offer to submit application for a loan. Thus the representative has to understand how business works, risks connected with making deals with this company, keep up that everything is legal, and look after how borrower spend credit (Osnovniye prinzcipi kreditovaniya MPS, 2001).
From the interview with Sahauyeva Zhanar we learned that "Oasis" company also prepared to the meeting with representative of credit department. Executor looked through office rooms, presence of the basic, and turnaround means, in general he was satisfied with total condition of the business (Sahauyeva, 2001).
1. Required pledge.
Banks have to ensure their credits, which are given to entrepreneurs in case of bankruptcy. Thus, all banks demand pledge maintenance from borrowers. Banks accept as a pledge property, guaranties of other legal persons, and other types of pledges. For instance, European Bank of Reconstruction and Development accept real estate, motor vehicles, personal property, enterprises' property and goods, which are in business (Yevropeyskiy bank rekonstrukzii I razvitiya, 2001). In our considered "Oasis" company, the pledges were real estate of the founders and commodity stocks. Estimated value of the commodity stocks was equal to 20 mln. tenge.
2. Difficulties of enterprises with providing a pledge.
It is very difficult to receive a credit on ordinary terms, offered by banks. This is due to most enterprises are not able to provide a pledge required by banks or their pledge is not liquid enough.
There are several problems, which are arising with providing a pledge to bank. The most important is illiquidity of the pledge that if offered by enterprises. Banks accept movable and immovable property, which is owned either by enterprise or entrepreneur, guaranties of other legal persons, marketable securities (Kreditovaniye, 2001). Another important thing is that banks usually underestimate cost of the pledge. And the last thing is registration of documents confirmed your ownership of the pledge. Banks, when they are giving out a credit, demand these last two items. Thus, if the estimation of the pledge that is carried out by experts of the bank is free of charge, then confirmation of ownership is carried out at the expense of the businessman. (Dauranov I., 2000).
As we already mentioned, the pledge of "Oasis" company to the bank were real estate and commodity stocks. But firstly, "Oasis" company offered only real estate as a pledge, but in bank said that this is not enough, and then company added commodity stocks (Sahauyeva, 2001). Most probably, that bank underestimated the cost of real estate, and then demanded more property in order to ensure its money in a best way. It is well, that "Oasis" company could offer commodity stocks, but if there were another company with not very big amount of assets, we think, that bank would deny in borrowing money, because there are so many companies that needs money to increase their turnover or to buy some equipment, that banks could just choose the biggest company with a big amount of assets. This is support the idea that banks are more pleased to work with big companies and with big money, rather than with small enterprises.
Thus, it is very difficult to receive a credit. You may have problems with providing a liquid pledge, demanding by banks. Even if your business goes well and profitable, your company could just have not enough assets to offer it to the banks, moreover, you are asking a loan to buy an equipment, to increase your assets, but bank gives loans only to those, who already developed. Thus, there is a situation, that rich become richer and poor become poorer.
E. Interest Rates and Repayment.
Now, let us consider interest rates, which enterprises have to pay as a payment to the banks for lending money. For example, interest rates of NSBK are determined in dependence with concrete case and project:
On credits in national currency – from 24%
On credits in national currency with fixation of currency equivalent –from 17 %
On credits in foreign currency – from 17% (Kreditovaniye, 2001).
These interest rates looks pretty high, but there are a lot of programs on supporting small business, and many banks support this policies and offer credits to enterprise on less interest rates. For instance, Kazkommertz Bank offer 1% on foreign currency credits (Kreditovaniye (kkb), 2001). For example, our case company "Oasis" took credit under program of supporting small business and took a credit in Bank Centercredit in national currency under 10%.
The scheme of repayment of the credit and interest is usually in most banks on personal scheme. "Oasis" company's payment schedule also was personally scheduled. They took credit on 9 months and made monthly payments: part of the credit itself and part of interest rate. In first months repayments interests charged on low rate, but closer to the 9th month interest grew.
Thus, we can conclude, that entrepreneur has to prepare many documents, prepare to meeting with executive of credit department of the bank, have a liquid pledge, and have enough assets to give it as a pledge in order to be able to satisfy the bank's requirements. There are so high interest rates, but still there are many programs on supporting small business lending and enterprises have to discover first, which bank is more suitable and then go and find out its personal specific terms.
Dauranov I.(2000), Maliy bisnes: problemi oformleniya kredita, Al Pari No.5:82.