A. Reasons for undertaking research.
At the times of Soviet Union, there wasn't not only small or middle business, there was not any business at all, everything was public and there was no owners; so all countries of ex-Soviet Union have to develop their small enterprises intensively. For Kazakhstan, it was very difficult, mainly because Kazakhstan had more mineral industry and a little of agriculture, for the most part - grain. Processing industry was very weak. When USSR broke up and young Kazakhstan had to care about itself, enterprises needed huge amounts of money to buy necessary equipment, employ qualified workers to work in mineral industry and to develop processing industry, which demand, by the way, more expenses. However, firstly, government and banks did not have enough money to give credits to the enterprises and secondly, it was much easier to create monopoly. Thus, our system of supporting small business was not correct from the very beginning. But still, 10 years later when it seems that Kazakhstan had grown roots and almost everything going rather well, our system of supporting small business in a bad condition (see Appendix 1).
There are several reasons why our small business develops very slowly. Firstly, there was not any optimal government strategy it support small business. Government did not reveal the appropriate branch and regional priorities for small business. Secondly, another problem is corruption. As we know, officials can build huge barriers before entrepreneurs, for example, different checks, problems with registration, and others. Thirdly, a high taxes on enterprises.
Small enterprises pay more taxes than big ones. This system of taxation should be more fair, because for small enterprises there is no stimulus not to develop, but even to conduct their own business. Lastly, in our country there is no appropriate lending system. Banks do not want to credit small business, because there is more probability that business won't go well, also there is big problems arises with preparing necessary documents in order to receive a credit, another problem is liquid enough pledge. So we can see, that enterprises collide with many problems when they are trying to receive a credit.
What for our country should support small business? Small business creates new workplaces, form middle class, develop trade and production. If we would not develop small business, there will be no competitive market, thus there will be no improvements in our market, in products and services. So, we should develop small business in Kazakhstan to build up our economy, particularly we should improve our crediting system of small enterprises, because small firms have to develop themselves, but they can not do that without money. Thus, our research problem is with which problems small business meets, when it is trying to receive a credit.
B. Research structure.
Our research structure:
Necessity to credit small business. In this chapter, we will tell you about needfulness of developing small business and some ways to realize financing and investing support.
Goals for receiving a credit. In this chapter, you will read about aims of entrepreneurs who are trying to receive a loan and on what kind of goals banks lend money.
Terms for receiving a credit. You will read about necessary documents, required in banks and difficulties with preparing these documents, about meeting with representative of credit department, about pledge and interest rates.
Interest rates and repayment. In the chapter we will tell you about one of the most important things, with which each entrepreneur meets when he receives a loan – interest rates. Another important thing you will read in this chapter is a day or period of repayment.
C. Research methodology.
We conducted our research on case study and survey. We reviewed literature, Internet, publishing information, periodical, science magazines, and reports of different banks. We conducted an interview with respondent Ms Sahauyeva Zhanar, who is working as a chief accountant in "Oasis" company, this interview was organized in 3 of April (checklist, see Appendix #1).
Necessity to credit small business.
First of all, let us define the notion of small business. According to the existing law, to small business refer new and working enterprises, in which number of employee not more than 50 and total cost of assets not more than 60 000 calculation indexes ( Law of Republic of Kazakhstan from 19 July 1997 N 131-1 O gosudarstvennoi poddershke malogo predprinimatelstva (with amendments to this law in 10.07.98 № 283-1; in 26.07.99 № 458-1; in 29.11.99 № 488-1)). Thus, for today maximum amount for assets of small enterprises cannot exceed 46 500 000 tenge. Small and middle business – the basis of market economy, it overcomes monopoly, provide employment (see Appendix 2), provide revenues from its activity to government, provide more innovations than other forms of business.
It is important to credit small business. Most of small enterprises had to limit their activity because of lack or inaccessibility of credits. Thus, now the weakened business cannot carry out its functions, which is create new workplaces, form middle class, develop trade and production, and which is effective especially in sphere of agriculture, tourism, rendering of services to the population, etc. Therefore, financing and investing support is the most important for effective development of small business.
Finance and investing support for small business can be realized in the following ways:
Crediting by second tier banks priority projects by tender system on the preferential conditions;
Creating and development of guarantee credit system in a second tier banks, on a basis of forming pledge funds in regions;
Promotion of stimulation of second tier banks;
Continuation of budget and second tier banks financing of projects;
Development of venture financing;
Encouragement of credit partnerships creation, mutual insurance societies (Finansirovanie I kreditovaniye subyektov malogo biznesa, 2001).
Thus, we can see, that it is very important to develop investing and financial support of small business in Kazakhstan. Small business needs money to expand their business, buy equipment, employ more workers, that is why the key in developing small business is investment in it.
Finansirovanie I kreditovaniye subyektov malogo biznesa, 2001 http://business.zakon.kz/fincredit/,
Law of Republic of Kazakhstan from 19 July 1997 N 131-1 O gosudarstvennoi poddershke malogo predprinimatelstva (with amendments to this law in 10.07.98 № 283-1; in 26.07.99 № 458-1; in 29.11.99 № 488-1).
Goals for receiving a loan.
There are many goals pursued by entrepreneur when he is asking for credit, but not for all purposes it is given. For example, EBRR gives credit for increase in working capital, investments like purchase of real estate, etc. (Krediti dlya malogo biznesa EBRR , 2001), Kazkomertzbank offer credit for increasing turnover, increasing working capital for further growth, expansion of production or volume of services, purchase of machinery, equipment, row materials, improvement of manufacture, purchase, construction and maintenance of real estate, and other capital investments (Kreditovaniye, 2001).
In our survey, we conducted an interview with chief accountant of "Oasis" company. This firm was organized in 1997 and busy in selling wholesale trade of medicines, the authorized capital was formed from personal savings, and number of employees is equal to 12. This company took a credit from Centercredit Bank in year 2000. They took a credit in Centercredit Bank because firstly, they have served in this bank and secondly, there was program on supporting small business, which were conducted by EBRR. The goal of receiving a credit was increasing turnover. With this credit, the company gained 30% income - they made 3 contracts on the total amount of $19,000. Thus, the company got profit from receiving a credit (Sahauyeva, 2001).
Thus, we can conclude, that there are many reasons for the enterprises to give an application to the bank in order to receive a credit, and one of the main reason is investing, i.e. buying an equipment, building. However, banks give credit mainly in order to increase turnover. In our case, the company took credit exactly for this purposes (increasing turnover), and gained a profit.
Krediti dlya malogo biznesa EBRR, 2001 http://www.fund.kz/ebrr_c.html
Kreditovaniye, 2001 http://www.kkb.kz/banking_re/sber/service/06_credit.asp
Sahauyeva Zhanar, 2001, interview
Terms for receiving a loan.
A. Necessary documents
There are several documents, which are required in order to receive a credit, they are:
Confirmation of RNN by RNI
Borrower form and chiefs biographical data
Financial reporting for the past 3 years
Cards with a sample of signs
Documents establishing right for an object of pledge
Certificate about number of employee with chief's and accountant's signs with seal
Marketable securities prospectus
Marketable securities registration certificate
Certificate from tax inspection and from extra-budget fund about absence (or presence) of debts (Kreditovaniye, 2001).
These are the main documents, demanded by banks, but representative of credit department of the bank may require extra documents, depending upon financed project (Sahauyeva, 2001).