And what do ail these "little legislatures" actually do? After all the facts are gathered, the committee decides whether to report a new bill favorably or with a recommendation that it be passed with amendments. Sometimes, the bill will be set aside, or tabled, which effectively ends its consideration. When bills are reported out of committee and passed by the full House or Senate, however, another committee goes into action, ironing out any differences between the House and Senate versions of the same bill. This "conference committee, " consisting of members of both houses, completes a bill to all members' satisfaction, then sends it to the House and Senate floors for final discussion and a vote. If passed, the bill goes to the president for his signature.
Congressional committees are vital because they do the nuts-and-bolts job of weighing the proposals, hammering them into shape or killing them completely. They continue to play a large part in the preparation and consideration of laws that will help shape the United States in its third century.
STANDING, OR PERMANENT, COMMITTEES OF CONGRESS
Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs
District of Columbia
Education and Labor
Energy and Commerce
Interior and Insular Affairs
Merchant Marine and Fisheries
Post Office and Civil Service
Public Works and Transportation
Science, Space and Technology
Standards of Official Conduct
Ways and Means
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
Banking. Finance and Urban Affairs
Commerce, Science and Transportation
Energy and Natural Resources
Environment and Public Works
Labor and Human Resources
Rules and Administration
OFFICERS OF THE CONGRESS
The Constitution provides that the vice president shall be president of the Senate. He or she has no vote, except in the case of a tie. The Senate chooses a president pro tempore to preside when the vice president is absent. The House of Representatives chooses its own presiding officer—the speaker of the House. The speaker and the president pro tempore are always members of the political party with the largest representation in each house.
At the beginning of each new Congress, members of the political parties select floor leaders and other officials to manage the flow of proposed legislation. These officials, along with the presiding officers and committee chairmen, exercise strong influence over the making of laws.
THE LAWMAK1NG PROCESS
One of the major characteristics of the Congress is the dominant role committees play in its proceedings. Committees have assumed their present-day importance by evolution, not by constitutional design, since the Constitution makes no provision for their establishment.
At present the Senate has 16 standing (or permanent) committees: the House of Representatives has 22. Each specializes in specific areas of legislation: foreign affairs, defense, banking, agriculture, commerce, appropriations and other fields. Every bill introduced in either house is referred to a committee for study and recommendation. The committee may approve, revise, kill or ignore any measure referred to it. It is nearly impossible for a bill to reach the House or Senate floor without first winning committee approval. In the House, a petition to discharge a bill from a committee requires the signatures of 218 members; in the Senate, a majority of all members is required. In practice, such discharge motions only rarely receive the required support.
The majority party in each house controls the committee process. Committee chairmen are selected by a caucus of party members or specially designated groups of members. Minority parties are proportionally represented on the committees according to their strength in each house.
Bills are introduced by a variety of methods. Some are drawn up by standing committees; some by special committees created to deal with specific legislative issues; and some may be suggested by the president or other executive officers. Citizens and organizations outside the Congress may suggest legislation to members, and individual members themselves may initiate bills. After introduction, bills are sent to designated committees which, in most cases, schedule a series of public hearings to permit presentation of views by persons who support or oppose the legislation. The hearing process, which can last several weeks or months, opens the legislative process to public participation.
One virtue of the committee system is that it permits members of Congress and their staffs to amass a considerable degree of expertise in various legislative fields. In the early days of the republic, when the population was small and the duties of the federal government narrowly circumscribed, such expertise was not as important. Each congressman was a generalist and dealt knowledgeably with all fields of interest. The complexity of national life today calls for special knowledge, which means that elected representatives often acquire expertise in one or two areas of public policy.
When a committee has acted favorably on a bill, the proposed legislation is then sent to the floor for open debate. In the Senate, the rules permit virtually unlimited debate. In the House, because of the large number of members, the Rules Committee usually sets limits. When debate is ended, members vote either to approve the bill, defeat it, table it—which means setting it aside and is tantamount to defeat—or return it to committee. A bill passed by one house is sent to the other for action. If the bill is amended by the second house, a conference committee composed of members of both houses attempts to reconcile the differences.
Once passed by both houses, the bill is sent to the president, for constitutionally the president must act on a bill for it to become law. The president has the option of signing the bill—by which it becomes law—or vetoing it. A bill vetoed by the president must be reapproved by a two-thirds vote of both houses to become law.
The president may also refuse either to sign or veto a bill. In that case, the bill becomes law without his signature 10 days after it reaches him (not counting Sundays). The single exception to this rule is when Congress adjourns after sending a bill to the president and before the 10-day period has expired; his refusal to take any action then negates the bill—a process known as the "pocket veto."
CONGRESSIONAL POWERS OF INVESTIGATION
One of the most important nonlegislative functions of the Congress is the power to investigate. This power is usually delegated to committees—either the standing committees, special committees set up for a specific purpose, or joint committees composed of members of both houses. Investigations are conducted to gather information on the need for future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed, to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and officials of the other branches, and on rare occasions, to lay the groundwork for impeachment proceedings. Frequently, committees call on outside experts to assist in conducting investigative hearings and to make detailed studies of issues.
There are important corollaries to the investigative power. One is the power to publicize investigations and their results. Most committee hearings are open to the public and are widely reported in the mass media. Congressional investigations thus represent one important tool available to lawmakers to inform the citizenry and arouse public interest in national issues. Congressional committees also have the power to compel testimony from unwilling witnesses, and to cite for contempt of Congress witnesses who refuse to testify and for perjury those who give false testimony.