But why should we pay so much attention to teaching role of manager or his mentoring role? The answer is obvious: teaching is a core competency the effective manger should have. The idea of effectiveness changed the vision of teaching and today more authors speak not only about teaching or mentoring but about a developmental manager.31 That means that instead of taskmasters and evaluators, managers are most effective as coaches, motivators, symphony conductors and employee developers"32 We will pay more attention to this idea.
Developing happened not at home but mostly at the work place during the work itself or during the special classes. That is why it will be useful for each manager to create and to follow a development plan to avoid pointless talks and wasting of time. The idea of "A+ employees takes A+ managers"33 seems to our group to be a very interesting and future oriented idea of cooperation between manager and employees. According to this idea you should follow these rules while developing people:
Appreciate uniqueness of the people
Assess capability of their team members
Anticipate the future (leads others in the future)
Align aspirations (create win/win partnerships built on trust and loyalty)
But in practice the theory is always confronted with reality. One of the main problems of teaching or developing people is that a lot of managers are afraid of teaching other people. The main reason for such an attitude is idea, that if you as a manager will teach someone everything you know and after that he may become better and smarter then you, and take your place. Of course it can happen. But then manager should turn back to his main values and decide what is most important to him: his own career or his company's success.
At the same time, if you are going to share your knowledge with someone, to teach, to develop and to become a mentor you must broaden your own knowledge. The individual becomes a manager because he was chosen to get results and to use his knowledge, not because he won a popularity contest. Employees are not going to listen to a person who has no knowledge in what he is talking about or gives out false information. People need to believe that a manager has the proper skills and abilities to carry out what he claims to be experienced in. Only then a manager will earn a respect and employees will become his like-minded team. How will you be able to do this?
Some authors34 say that as a manager and especially as an executive manager you are responsible for all fields of business in your company: for marketing and sales, for finance, for information technology etc. You should understand how things works (the IKEA-case and Kamprad's attention to all details can illustrate this statement) and also how employees work whose knowledge in one particular field are deeper then yours. These are two main corner stones of success. How to reach them? The best solution can be continuous replacing inside organization. As a result manager receives variety of experiences and knowledge in different functions, business units, companies, and even countries. The positive effect of such a "moving" results in understanding, how the whole business operates; of the impact of managerial decisions on the rest of the organization. Managers can also transfer best practices to new areas while moving; he learns how to lead in a variety of situations and he develops strong networks inside and outside the organization35.
Some other authors36, especially from the business world, used to think that an effective manager must not be satisfied with his education degree and training, but must always be ready to catch advanced education opportunities. The advanced degree is MBA-program; if this level was reached then never avoid additional seminars, courses and workshops. In contrast to the thirst group of authors who are speaking about continuous replacement, these theories accept the idea of receiving deep knowledge in one particular area.
These two approaches and also all theories about teaching show us how important is for every manager to develop himself and his employees. Continuous self-development, learning and teaching are the best ways to success and effectiveness.
Motivation of employees
Like the previous characteristics, the ability to motivate your employees to work is also an indispensable one if you want to be effective as a manager. The psychology of motivation is tremendously complex, and what has been unravelled so far with any degree of assurance is very small. What I will do here is (1) give a definition of what motivation is, (2) very briefly going across the major theories, classical and contemporary ones, and (3) address some possibilities how an affective manager can implement the ideas the theories offered in reality, which is of most importance. But first some theory.
Stephen P. Robbins gives us the following definition of motivation in his book Organizational Behavior (2001, p. 155)37: "[...] the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal". Thus intensity (1) is concerned with "how hard a person tries", with direction (2) we mean "toward attaining the organizational goals"and persistence refers to "how long a person can maintain his or her effort".
In the past, especially in the 50's, a lot has been written about how managers can motivate their employees. We can classify these theories in 5 categories.38 These are:
1. Need theories:
- Hierarchy of Needs Theory (A. Maslow) / ERG Theory (C. Alderfer)
Two Factor Theory (F. Herzberg)
Theory X and Theory Y (D. McGregor)
These theories all depart from the thought that to motivate your employees, you have to satisfy certain needs. Maslow's hierarchical model, a classical one, says that you first have to satisfy physiological needs (i.e. hunger, thirst, ...), then you have to offer them safety (from physical and emotional harm), consequently you must satisfy them socially (affection, acceptance, ...), after thatyou can motivate them by satisfying their esteem (internal as well as external), and only then, when all the previous needs are satisfied, you can motivate them by letting your employees actualize themselves through their work (i.e. self-fulfilment). So if you want to motivate someone, according to Maslow, you need to understand what level of hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level.
Maslow's theory has received wide recognition, but unfortunately research does not validate the theory. A theory that contests Maslow's theory is Alderfer's ERG Theory, where E stands for existence (cfr. the physiological and safety needs), R for relatedness (cfr. the social needs and the external component of the esteem need) and G for growth needs (cfr. the internal esteem component and the self-actualization need). This theory differs from Maslow's in that (1) more than one need may be operative at the same time and (2), if the gratification of a higher level need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. In opposite to Maslow's theory, several studies do have supported this theory. It takes into account that in different cultures the categories can be ranked in another way, for example Japan, where the social needs are placed under the physiological ones.
Another classical need theory is the Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. These two theories represent two distinct views of human beings: Theory X makes the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform, where Theory Y stipulates that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self-direction. Research suggests that these theories may be applicable but only in particular situations.
Maybe the most important contribution to the motivation question comes from the psychologist Frederick Herzberg with his Two-Factor Theory. The insight Herzberg brought to the matter meant a u-turn in previously thinking. He stated as first that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, as was traditionally believed, but that both are distinct and separate. Intrinsic factors such as the work itself, responsibility, and achievement seem to be related with satisfaction (motivators), while extrinsic factors such as supervision, pay, company policies and working conditions are associated with dissatisfaction (hygiene factors). This theory has had a major impact on management in the last 30 years and the fact that managers nowadays allow workers greater responsibility in planning and controlling their work can probably be attributed largely to Herzberg's findings and recommendations