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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Softening waters by the method of ionic exchange - Реферат

Softening waters by the method of ionic exchange - Реферат

At the same time, it is necessary to mention and other side of a medal. Soft water with rigidity less than 2 mg-ecv/l has low buffer capacity (alcalinity) and can, depending on a level рН and of some other factors, render the increasedcorrosive attack to water pipes. Therefore, in a number of applications (it is especial in the heating engineer) sometimes it is necessary to carry out special processing of water with the purpose of achievement of an optimum ratio between rigidity of water and its corrosion activity.

EXPERIMENTAL PART

The adsorption processes including both processes cleanly including physical, and the processes conducting to formation of new chemical substances are rather various. Processes concern to them ion-exchange chromatographies proceeding between ionits and solutions of electrolit also.

Due to the universality and these processes have found of flexibility wide application in analytical chemistry, food and an iron and steel industry, in power system, water-preparation and in many other areas of a science and technics(technical equipment), and now supersede from an industrial practice other methods sorption [1-3]. Despite of the big assortment industrial ionits, the majority of them, especially, condensation type differ such low parameters, as low speed sorption, small stability to thermal, chemical influences, etc. It limits opportunities and spheres of their application [4,5].

By us it is received new monofunctional sulphocationite on the basis of interaction of styrene with an accessible and cheap waste of agricultural and cotton scraping industries.

Sorption abilities of sulphocationite to ions of calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel carried out research from 0.1N solutions of СаСl2, MgCl2, CuSO4 and NiSO4. Sorption of calcium and magnesium determined by trilonometric, copper by iodometric, nickel by photocolorimetric methods [10,11].

According to the literary data, polymers and ion-exchangers, received on the basis of derivatives of furan differ from raised thermal and chemical stability and mechanical durability [5,6]. The basic properties of received sulphocationite are submitted in table 1.

Table 1

The main physical and chemical parameters of received sulphocationite

Parameters

Values

1.

Bulk weight, g/ml

0.68

2.

Specific volume of bulk cationit in Н-form, ml/g

3.5

3.

Static exchange capacity, in mg - ecv/g, on:

0.1N. solution of NaOH

5,2

0.1N. solution of NaCl

4.5

0.1N. solution of СaCl2

Н-form

4.2

Nа-form

4.8

0.1N. solution of MgCl2

Н-form

3.0

Nа-form

3.8

0.1 N. solution of СuSO4

Н-form

2.6

Nа-form

3.0

0.1 N. solution of NiSO4

Н-form

2.15

Nа-form

2.34

4.

Mechanical durability

99 %

As is known in many regions of our republic used in a life and on manufacture water has high rigidity which sometimes reaches up to 12 mg-ecv/l instead of 2874-82 "Potable water" received according to GOST – 2.5-7 mg-ecv/l.

From the data of table 1 it is visible, that the examinee cationit possesses high enough parameters of size of exchange capacity on ions of calcium and magnesium. As object of research we had been used artesian water of area Shurchi in Surkhan-Darya area which has rigidity of 12.2 mg-ecv/l. Cationits tested in Н-and Na-forms.

1 gr. of cationit filled in 200 ml of researched water. In 24 hours water separated from cationit and determined its rigidity trilonometric method at the presence of the indicator chromogen black. Thus rigidity of water in the Н-form has made 4.5 mg - ecv/l, and in the Na-form of 2.2 mg - ecv/l.

Except for it we had been carried out researches on softening water of 2.5 mg-ecv/l having rigidity. After contact within 6 hours of water with cationit rigidity of it corresponded at use cationit in:

the Н-form – 0.8 mg-ecv/l;

the Na-form – 0.4 mg-ecv/l.

Results of the received researches testifies to perspectivity of work with the examinee with sulphocationite.

Vocabulary

  1. Adjournment

  2. Artesian water

  3. Cationit

  4. Anionit

  5. Sorption

  6. Sulphocationite

  7. Rigidity

  8. Indicator chromogen black

  9. Thrilonometric

  10. Bulk weight

  11. Condensation

  12. Hydrocarbonate

  13. Slag

  14. Scum

  15. Ionits

  16. Alkalinity

  17. Softening

  18. Calcium

  19. Magnesium.

  20. Sewage

  21. Corrosion activity

  22. Static exchange capacity

  23. Swelling capacity

  24. Iodometric,

  25. Photocolorimetric

  26. Chemical stability

  27. Thermal stability

  28. Reagent method

  29. Potable water

  30. Cotton scraping industries

  31. Polycondensation

  32. Correspond

  33. Сopper

  34. desorption

  35. Potentiometric titration

  36. Flexibility

  37. Specific volume

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Отложения

Артезианская вода

Катионит

Анионит

Сорбция

Сульфокатионит

Жесткость

Индикатор хромоген черный

Трилонометрический

Насыпной вес

Конденсация

Гидрокарбонат

Шлак

Накипь

Ионит

Щелочность

Умягчение

Кальций

Магний

Сточные воды

Деятельность коррозии

Статическая обменная емкость

Влажность

Иодометрический

Фотокалориметрический

Химическая устойчивость

Термическая устойчивость

Реагентный метод

Питьевая вода

Хлопчатоочистительная пром.

Поликонденсация

Переписываются

Медь

Десорбция

Потенциометрич. титрование Гибкость

Удельный объем

Литература

  1. Полянский Н.Г. Сб. Синтез и свойства ионообменных материалов", М.: "Наука",1968г.

  2. Либинсон Г.С. Физико-химические свойства карбоксильных катионитов, М.: "Наука", 1969.

  3. Гельферих Ф. "Иониты",М.: Изд. ИЛ., 1962 г.

  4. Таджиходжаев З.А. Разработка ионообменных и композиционных материалов многофункционального назначения на основе вторичных продуктов производств и технологии их получения".: Автореф. дисс. доктора технических наук. ", Ташкент.: 2002.

  5. Муталов Ш.А., Турсунов Т., Назирова Р.А. Исследование сорбции ионов цветных металлов слабоосновными анионитами поликонденсационного типа./Ж. Композиционные материалы. № 2, С.7-8. Ташкент:. 2003.

  6. Таджиходжаев З.А., Джалилов А.Т. Синтез и исследование свойств катионообменных смол на основе вторичных продуктов химических предприятий.// Ж. Прикл. химии. 1998. т. 72. № 9. С. 1578-1580.

  7. Гриссбах Р. "Теория и практика ионного обмена", М.: Изд. ИЛ. 1963., с. 303 – 310.

  8. Л.Беллами "Инфракрасные спектры сложных молекул", М.: ИЛ, 1963г.

  9. Алексеев В.Н. "Количественный анализ", М.: Химия, 1972г.

  10. Пешкова В.М., Громова М.И. Практическое руководство по спектрофотометрии и калориметрии. М.: Изд."Московского Университета", 1965 г.

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