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The American Dream like a social phenomenon and the possibility of it's realization in Russia - Реферат

Search of absolute goods is not meant, certainly, that by the Russian person, for example the commoner is meaningly attracted to God's Empire, having in the mind a complex system of doctrines about it. Fortunately, in a soul of a person there is a force attracting to goods and condemning angrily, irrespective of a degree of education and its knowledge: this force - a voice of conscience. The Russian person possesses especially sensitive distinction of good and harm; he sharp-sightedly notices imperfection of all acts and customs, being never satisfied with them and never stops to search the perfect goods. According to Dostoevsky, simple, having little education people can reach high spiritual life. The best example is the book "Frank stories of the wanderer to the confessor ". Dostoevsky finds synthesis and end of all kind properties of Russian people in its Christian spirit. "Perhaps, the only love of russian people is the Christ ", - Dostoevsky thinks. Having recognized sanctity as the maximum value, aspiring to absolute goods, Russian people, Dostoevsky says, does not erect terrestrial relative values, for example a private property, in a rank of "sacred" principles.

To number of primary properties of Russian people, together with religiousness, search of absolute goods and will power, are concerned the love of freedom and its maximum expression - freedom of spirit. This property is closely connected with search of absolute goods. Askoldov in his clause " Dostoevsky's Religious and ethical value " says, that the person as the individual essence, demands that all norms of a life have to receive his personal sanction, i. е. they have to be selected and estimated either thinking, or irrational moral intuition, or experience. Therefore the strongly pronounced person often enters the conflict to external conditions, can even commit a crime "in the search of higher rules of behavior". Dostoevsky represents character of Russian people, daringly putting on trial values and generally accepted norms. The examples of such people are Raskolnikov, Stavrogin and Ivan Karamazov.

Owing to free search of the truth and courageous criticism of values, makes difficult to Russian people to come to an agreement with each other for a common cause. Jokers speak, that when three Russian will begin to argue about any question, as a result there will be even not three, but four opinions because someone from participants of dispute will hesitate between two opinions. In the organizations based for any common cause, easily arise splits, form different parties, circles; in political parties - some fractions.

In a public life love of freedom of Russians is expressed in propensity to anarchy, in pushing away from the state. K. Aksakov has developed the characteristic doctrine for Slavophiles about the state. It approves, that Russian people sharply distinguishes "their Land" and the state. The "Land" is a community; it lives according to the internal, moral truth. Shubart writes: "to Russian and in general to Slaves is peculiar the aspiration to freedom, not only freedom from a yoke of foreign people, but also to freedom from fetters of all passing and transitory ".

Contempt for narrow-mindedness, for bourgeois concentration on the property, on earthly blessings, on that "to live as all", to have good conditions, a dress, an apartment is an extremely characteristic feature of Russian society. Herzen, Dostoevsky, L.Tolstoj, having seen a life of the Western Europe, with disgust describe its petty-bourgeois character. Ivanov-Razumnik has written three-volume, rather detailed work "History of Russian public idea. Individualism and narrow-mindedness in the Russian literature in a life of XIX century." The term "narrow-mindedness", according to Ivanov-Razumnik, includes such conceptions as collective mediocrity, a moderation and accuracy, hatred to bright individuality. Lev Tolstoy at the beginning of his literary activity in the story "Lucerne" has described egoistical isolation in itself of the rich people living in magnificent hotel with great indignation. In blossoming of the art creativity he has stigmatized narrow-mindedness, having represented in "War and peace" Berg's and his wife's persevering diligence "to live as all". In his "Dead souls" N. V. Gogol depicts a brilliant character of Chichikov, a person, whose aim of life was the pursuit of richness. The reader can see the sarcasm the author speaks not only about the main character, but about the whole Russian nobility and officialdom, i.e. about the ruling rich classes.

Unlike others, "Russian dream" includes such rare component as social. The main Russian question formulated by Dostoevsky is: "And whether there is all happiness of the world of tear of the unique children?" Europeans, especially Americans, are not really interested in humanism; they just want to seem philanthropic. As Russia has always had ideas about public happiness the communism, with it's ideas of equality of all people and their well-being because of collective labour, in Russia has been programmed.

III The comparative analysis of values of American and Russian young men

  • Purpose: To make a social questioning among young Russian and American people in the age of 14 – 19 years about their values and plans on future in order to compare them and to find out the possibility of realization of the American Dream in Russian reality.

  • Tasks: 1) To make a social inquiry among Russian young men

2) To make a social inquiry among American young people.

3) To compare the results of both tests.

4) To make a conclusion.

  1. Methods of research. In the work was used a method of social questioning. The Russian and American young people were asked the same questions, concerning their plans on future life, their values and moral standards. In addition the Russians were asked special questions about their preferences of a choice of production of a masscult concerning the country of the manufacturer. The interrogation of Russian young people was made in the gymnasium №11 and Art school №1. The Americans were asked on the Internet.

The questions the respondents were asked are the following.

    1. Choose the most important for you vital value:

a) Family

b) Love

c) Freedom

d) Friendship

e) Money

g) Career

h) Self-reliance

i) Success

j) Education

k) Health

l) Good luck

The results: (number of people)

Values

Russians

Americans

Family

7

5

Love

8

7

Freedom

4

5

Friendship

6

3

Money

6

8

Career

4

8

Self-reliance

3

4

Success

4

7

Education

7

3

Health

8

5

Good luck

4

6

    1. What is the most important thing you need to do in the nearest 15 years?

The most popular answers are (in number of persons):

Plan

Russians

Americans

To success in my career

7

17

To establish a family

16

9

To get a good education

13

10

To earn money

23

24

To travel round the world

2

1

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