WWW.REFERATCENTRAL.ORG.UA - Я ТУТ НАВЧАЮСЬ

... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → The American Dream like a social phenomenon and the possibility of it's realization in Russia - Реферат

The American Dream like a social phenomenon and the possibility of it's realization in Russia - Реферат

Самарский Медико-технический лицей

Научно-практическая конференция учащихся

Секция: Английский язык

The American Dream like a social phenomenon and the possibility of it's realization in Russia.

Ниц Маргарита Андреевна

10 медицинский

Самарский Медико-технический лицей

Научный руководитель Несмелова Елена Борисовна

Самара 2007

Contents

  1. Introduction..................................................................................3

  2. The American Dream like a social phenomenon........................................4

  3. Criticism if the American dream............................................................7

  4. The Russian mentality and the "Russian dream".......................................8

  5. The comparative analysis of values of the American and Russian young

men............................................................................................10

  1. Conclusion...................................................................................15

  2. References...................................................................................16

Introduction

The United States of America nowadays holds leading positions in the most important parts of business, economics and scientific explorations in the western world. A country that inspired many appellations – "Land of Opportunity", "Melting Pot", "God's country" is still referred to people as a land of superlatives - "the richest", "the greatest", "the most". The American's style of life, which is based on the idea of realization of the American dream, becomes more and spread all over the world. America's culture, formed not long times ago, has already extended along many countries.

The Russian Federation is not the exception as during the period of the last 16 years Russian traditional culture has changed much because of Western one.

After perestroika, when the borders became opened and the Western civilization burst into our country, many Russian people began taking the style of life and habits of citizens of foreign countries and adopting them to ours. The greatest influence had the USA. Many young people were impressed by the original and sometimes inadmissible for a soviet citizen way of life in America, by the wealth of American citizens, by their rights and freedoms. They wanted to reach the same prosperity and that's why they began spontaneously copying different aspects of American culture. This brought lots of pluses: the people became more determined and ambitious, they got acquainted with modern techniques, and people got the opportunity of communicating with foreigners that broadened their outlook. That was the useful influence, bur there was also the bad one.

Very often young people couldn't take right from wrong that lead to very unpleasant consequences. In the 90's there was a rapidly increasing number of addicts, AIDS sick persons, teenager's pregnancies and crimes. Nowadays the situation in Russia is not the same, but the problem of Western, especially American influence is still actual.

In my work I will find out the core of the term "American Dream" and will find out the possibility of its realization in nowadays Russian reality. I will also compare the perspectives on life and interests of young Americans and Russians in order to find out if they are common or not.

I .The American dream like a social phenomenon

The American Dream is a subjective term usually implying a meaningful, successful and satisfying life. This term usually implies financial security and material comfort, but can also imply a dream of fame, exceeding social, ethnic, or class boundaries, or simply living a fulfilling life. Perceptions of the American dream are usually framed in terms of American capitalism, its associated meritocracy, and the freedoms guaranteed by the U.S. Bill of Rights.

The term is not easily defined, and has subjective meaning to many who claim it. The American Dream is often associated with immigration, as the dream of religious freedom, economic prosperity, and meritocracy has historically driven immigrants to the United States. The term is used by many modern Americans to signify success in life as a result of hard work (as in, "living [or pursuing] the American Dream").

The origin of the American Dream, a term coined by James Truslow Adams in his book "The Epic of America" (1931), stems from the departure in government and economics from the models of the Old World. This allowed unprecedented freedom, especially the possibility of dramatic upward social mobility. Additionally, from the American Revolutionary War well into the later half of the nineteenth century, many of America's physical resources were unclaimed and held out the promise of land ownership and lucky investment in land or industry. The development of the Industrial Revolution combined with the great natural resources of the enormous and as yet unsettled (by Europeans) continent created the possibility of achieving wealth and transitioning "from rags to riches".

The terrible living conditions in Europe and the hope of a better standard of living in America led to the migration of hundreds of thousands to the new world. Impoverished western Europeans escaping the Irish potato famines in Ireland, the Highland clearances in Scotland and the aftermath of Napoleon in the rest of Europe came to America to escape a poor quality of life at home. They wanted to embrace the financial mobility and constitutional freedoms that existed in the United States.

The Industrial Revolution was one of the great forces that developed the American Dream. The Industrial Revolution, amidst all the government corruption of the Gilded Era, resulted in the creation of hundreds of thousands of jobs. The development of big business, the Transcontinental Railroad, and the increase in oil production greatly increased the American standard of living. "Rags to riches" stories of business tycoons like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller led to the belief that if you had talent, intelligence, and a willingness to work extremely hard, you were more likely to live a good life. The stories of many successful people of that time seem to be fairy tales but they are truthful lifestories.

The best example is John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937), an American industrialist who played a prominent role in the early oil industry with the founding of Standard Oil (ExxonMobil is the largest of its descendants. ).He was second of six children and his father was was a traveling salesman of dubious products, such as "cancer cures," a philanderer and bigamist. 16-year-old Rockefeller began his career as an apprentice bookkeeper at Hewitt & Tuttle for 50 cents a day. His seriousness, diligence, and honesty led to steadily increasing responsibilities and pay over the next two years. Nevertheless, Rockefeller reached the point where he felt he was no longer getting paid according to his contribution and, in 1859, left to form his own produce commission business with a partner, Maurice Clark. Clark & Rockefeller quickly became a successful firm, and its partners accumulated enough capital to invest in other Cleveland businesses. His business became more and more successfull. In the early 1870s,he established Standard Oil company, which soon become one of the largest shippers of oil and kerosene in the country.Over a forty-year period, Rockefeller built Standard Oil into the largest and most profitable company in the world, and was for a time the richest man in the world. His business career was controversial. He was bitterly attacked by muckraking journalists; his company was convicted in federal court of monopolistic practices and broken up in 1911. He spent his last forty years focused on philanthropic pursuits, primarily related to education and public health, eventually giving away most of his wealth. Rockefeller and many other businessmen reached thir wellfare only by their hard work and intelligence.

Loading...

 
 

Цікаве