... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Travelling - Реферат

Travelling - Реферат

Secondary Comprehensive School № 662



Made by Adamyan Ashot

A student of the 9th form

Consulted by

Agarkova Natalia Nikolayevna




Traveling is one of the ways of discovering new countries.

Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. Its always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.Most travelers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds.Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had.People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car, by bike and on foot. People travel to have a holidays or to have business. If people have business trips they choose the fastest transport. They often travel by plane or by train. It is very expensive but it is very fast. And if people want to have a rest they choose traveling by boat, by car, on horseback and etc. When you travel by car or by bike you can stop where you want.All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.

What attracts tourists to Russia?

Russia has always been a country of mystery attractive for foreigners. There are lots of villages and towns in Russia famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in Dymkovo. Thousands of foreigners visit Russia to enjoy the typical Russian log houses, decorated with wood carvings.

Tourists like to visit old Russian towns and cities famous for their ancient architecture. They are especially attracted by Russian orthodox cathedrals, churches and monasteries. One of the most interesting old cities in Russia is Novgorod, or Novgorod the Great, as it was called in the old times. It is a treasury of architecture, painting and applied art created over the 11th to 17th centuries. The first records of the city on the Volkhov River date back to the year of 859. Now Novgorod has expanded far beyond its former limits. It is an important industrial and cultural centre, located on the busy highway linking Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The focal point of the city is the Detinets, or the Kremlin. The present-day Kremlin stems largely from the 15th century. Several alterations made in the 16th and 17th centuries were minor and did not affect its appearance. Novgorod's contribution to the development of Russian culture is outstanding. No other city excels Novgorod in the number of ancient monuments of architecture. The Novgorod Museum of History, Architecture and Art shows visitors the history of the medieval Novgorod. Its artistic value lies primarily in its collection of medieval icon painting.

There is a lot to see in Russia, but first of all foreign tourists visit the capital of our country, Moscow, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. They dream of visiting Red Square, which is called the heart of Moscow. Perhaps, the most ancient monument of Red Square is St. Basil's Cathedral. With its nine beautifully painted cupolas, it is a real masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture.

If you come to Moscow for the first time, you should by all means visit the Kremlin, which is very impressive. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the State Kremlin Palace, the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. The tallest Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country.

If you leave the Kremlin by the Trinity Gate you will come to the Alexandrovsky Gardens. The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, still and silent. Not far from the Alexandrovsky Gardens, behind the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, you will see Christ the Saviour Cathedral, with its huge beautiful gilded dome. Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals in and around the city. There are also a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions and monuments in Moscow.

There are more than 80 museums in our capital. The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art of the ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, and the State Tretyakov Gallery, which houses a rich collection of Russian painting and Russian icons. Other unique museums in Moscow are the State History Museum, the All-Russia Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, the Polytechnical Museum and many others. Moscow is famous for its theatres, too. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

Another interesting place to visit in Moscow is the All-Russia Exhibition Centre which occupies an area of 530 acres. The Exhibition Centre is situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature of the Exhibition Centre is its fountains. The "Friendship of the Nations" and the "Stone Flower" fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition Centre is a large cultural and commercial complex where different international exhibitions and fairs are held.

One of the most famous sights of the city is the Moscow Metro and a journey by Metro will be unforgettable. In the Metro you do not feel as if you're underground. This is due to the unique architecture and the artistic design of the stations, which are more like palaces. No two stations are alike; most of them have their own appearance.

Of course, every foreigner should visit St. Petersburg, the second largest city in Russia and one of the most splendid cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great at the mouth of the Neva River. Now it is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre.

St. Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there is something to catch your eye. The Winter Palace, St. Isaac's Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, and the Admiralty Building attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. Petersburg's many museums house some of the world's most famous art collections. The Hermitage and the Russian Museum, for example, contain the richest collections of pictures in the world.

The city is called the Northern Venice, because there are 65 rivers, branches and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It's also famous for its beautiful white nights.

There are a lot of Hero-cities in our country. And I would recommend that my foreign friends visit one of them. Volgograd is a legendary city, because here in 1943 the Soviet Army won the great and glorious victory over the fascists. The city was completely ruined during the war, but now it is a beautiful city again. It stands on the banks of the great Russian river Volga. The symbol of Volgograd is the Mamaev Hill. It was the centre of fighting during the heroic defence of Stalingrad. Now there is a great memorial there. Besides, you can visit the Stalingrad Battle Panorama Museum, which is situated on the bank of the Volga River. The centre of Volgograd is the Square of the Fallen Heroes. In the middle of it there is a granite obelisk and the common graves of the heroes of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. At the foot of the memorial you can see the Eternal Flame. Now Volgograd is a big industrial and cultural centre.

There are a lot of other interesting towns and cities in Russia, which are all worth visiting.

I have never travelling to other countries but would like to visit London.

London is one of the largest cities in the world. More then 10mln people live in London and its suburbs. London is a city of striking contrasts. Here one can come across the past and the present, the old and the modern, live side by side in mutual tolerance and respect.

In London, one can see architecture of different centuries and styles. It is inseparably connected with the history of the city. The Romans, the Saxons and the Danes settled here in turn, after them came the Normans, and brought the French civilisation. London survived the Plague and the Great Fire, which followed in 1666. During the Fire all wooden houses were smashed to the ground and a New London, London of stone with bigger houses and wider streets was built. During the World War II, many buildings of great historic value lay in ruins and today the face of London is changed.

Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The city first started in the place, which is known as the City. It is the Heart of London, it's commercial and business centre. It occupies a territory of a square mile. During a day, it is full of people, nearly half a million people work there.

The West End is the richest part of the city with its beautiful avenues, parks and gardens, grandhotels, theatres and fashionable shops. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury.

While the City is the money of London and the West End is the good of London, the East End is the hands of London, that built the banks of the City and beautiful mansions and hotels of the West End. It is a district, inhabited by the workers. There are many factories and the Port of London there.