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Hosny Mubarak - Реферат

Sadat loved formal receptions, magnificent suppers, ceremonial. Mubarak does not love high life, hates everything, that, in his opinion, is an excess. Sadat adored to appear on public in motley military uniforms at numerous awards. Mubarak does not put on the form since the civil post has held.

Sadat was completely corrupt, Mubarak - the incorruptible patriot. Sadat spent time in magnificent palaces. Mubarak lives in the small 2-storeyed country house constructed by him(it) on own means still(even) in 1971.

Sadat the born actor, the fan of light of a stage and long tiresome speeches. Mubarak has no eloquence, but he also is deprived propensities of the predecessor to eccentric to theatrical gestures, frankly dislikes chatterers.

Intellectuals laugh at him, tell about him every possible histories. But not malicious, as about Sadat.

Mubarak it is sincerely devoted to business of democracy, Sadat only dexterously juggled with this term. The new president in practice has proved, that his performances in protection of a personal freedom - not mere words. At him political life in the country began more democratic, than at Sadat.

In Egypt many consider, that Mubarak, becoming the witness of attempt at the predecessor, has learnt from this the important lesson: it is better to move forward gradually and to risk only insignificant failures, than to try to supervise over the country in the dictatorial style of Sadat fraught with shocks. Probably, for this reason care, the pragmatism, moderation and a sequence became distinctive features of a political rate at the new president.

Naming Mubarak "embodiment of care", already mentioned Heikal emphasizes, that it "care of the skilled pilot to which before he will lift the plane in top, the exact data on weather, loading and other data " are necessary.

In opinion of one western diplomat, Mubarak, in essence, has remained " the rectilinear commander who gives orders and expects obedience ". But he not the dictator. He first of all the militarian who annoys if his orders are not carried out.

Egyptians in the greater degree, than inhabitants of other countries, appreciate a shade of some greatness in the heads. Therefore many criticize Mubarak for his modest suits, the not refined speech and excessive shyness. They consider, that he has not enough scope of the present statesman.

Anyway, but due to persistence and thin feeling of a step president Mubarak has managed to rally Egypt and to return to it former authority. Arabs could not understand unpredictable of Sadat and did not trust him. Mubarak with his consecutive and realistic foreign line to them it be clear and causes trust. With him want to deal.

Having disseminated the extremely adverse impression made on Arabian world by Sadat, president Mubarak has managed to turn to itself arabs.

Year of 1989 became rotary both for Egypt, and for Mubarak. The president started to play more and more appreciable role on middle East, African and even world stages.

The National hero Egyptians come back of Casablanca Mubarak where there passed the interArabian meeting have met. At this summit the president of Egypt already in the first speech with resoluteness inherent in him has let know, that Cairo is going to provide to itself indisputable leadership in the Arabian world.

Alongside with increase of the prestige abroad, the Egyptian president has strengthened the authority and inside the country.

The Ministry of Educatuon of the Russian Federation

The State University of Humanitarian Sciences

The Department of Foreign Languages


The student of the first year

the Department of political studies

Nikolaeva Ekaterina Alekseevna

Moscow, 2002



  1. Hosny Mubarak – "Misner Honesty".

  2. Independent fligyt.

  3. Aerobatics.




In an extreme antiquity the territory of Egypt became a cradle of one of the first in a history of mankind of civilizations. It many times was exposed to invasions of foreign conquerors. In 1882 Egypt was occupied by England, in 1914 is posted by the English protectorate. Formal declaration Egypt as independent kingdom has taken place in 1922. Having imposed to Egypt in 1936 the unequal contract, England continued to occupy a zone of Suez canal. June, 18, 1953 Egypt is proclaimed by republic.

After revolution of 1953 at life of the oustanding figure of the Arabian national-liberation movement of president Nasera in Egypt progressive social and economic transformations were carried out. The antiimperialistic foreign policy, a rate on friendship and widespread cooperation from the USSR and was consistently carried out by other socialist countries.

From the beginning 1970 years внетренняя and the foreign policy of Egypt began to undergo essential changes. Its management led by Садатом began to pursue a policy of " liberalization of economy " and " open doors ", характеризовавшуюся wide encouragement of the private capital and foreign investments. Over a policy of the Egyptian management has prevailed proimperialistic a rate. In result the country experiences sharp sociopolitical and an economic crisis.

In Egypt counteraction to an antinational reactionary rate of a mode amplified on the part of various political forces. Trying to suppress this counteraction, authorities resorted to more and more wide reprisals. It has resulted in an aggravation of conditions in the country. October, 6, 1981 during military parade in Cairo the group of the military men belonging to the Muslim religious organization, accomplishes attempt on Sadat and he was killed.

The New Egyptian management continues to carry out in basically a foreign policy leaning on close cooperation with USA. Inside the country it has cancelled some repressive measures. The significant number of political prisoners is released.

The constitution Working in Egypt is accepted September, 11, 1971. The supreme body of legislature - National assembly.


Many recollect, that in the first years of board Mubarak has taken advantage in the interests of a condition of the general simplification which has come after destruction of Sadat, and the termination of the dramatized performances of the former president. Prudence new heads of the state was perceived faster as the certificate of wisdom, instead of as an attribute of shyness. He typed glasses, making special accent on modesty and focusing mass media on reduction of attention to his person and members of family. Among some other innovations he has sworn himself to limit the speeches till one hour.

Today, as well as within service in the Air Forces, president Mubarak wakes up in five mornings and prepares for breakfast for family. From six up to eight studies reports and messages then leaves for the office.

Till 15-00 - meetings with foreign delegations, meetings with members of the government and experts. Then two school hours sports in club of the Air Forces - gymnastics and "squash" (game reminding tennis). The tightened figure the president can give odds to young people.

In the Evening - continuation of a working day.

For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can solve numerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best efforts to prevent decline.

The tasks worth today before the president, hard for Egypt is located in region where the extremism represents the usual phenomenon, and the moderate approach - exception.

Hosny Mubarak can make still very much. The only thing, that he should not make is to wait...


  1. The directory of "The Country of the world", 1986.

  2. The big encyclopaedic dictionary, 1991.

  3. The concise Oxford dictionary of politics, 2001.