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Hosny Mubarak - Реферат

Quiet, modest, but resolute - Mubarak has provided transition of authority practically without a uniform false step. As has shown time, the former military pilot who has gone in the first independent flight as the head of the state, not only has not given in before getting from Sadat troubles, but with honour has left many followed tests, having strengthened the authority. Acknowledgement to that - participation of president Mubaraka in meeting of chapters of the Arabian states and the governments, taking place in Casablanca in May, 1989, and then his election on a post of the chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

But it will be later... While Mubarak, having borrowed a presidential armchair, has set free on all political prisoners and has shaken hands with them. Members of the organization finishing with Sadat, were prosecuted, and then executed or imprisoned. To tell the truth, many secret extremist Islamic groupings soon were revealed, one of which - "Al-Aksa" in May, 1982 has sentenced the president to a death penalty.

However, due to the vigorous activity of confidential services, Mubarak has managed to separate the "moderate" elements of Islamic opposition rejecting violence as a method of internal political struggle, from " incorrigible extremists ". In result, for first twelve months of board he has released 4.000 Islamic active workers.

Running forward, I shall tell, that Mubarak, knowing about the danger proceeding from Islamic extremists, avoids drastic measures in religious sphere. He understands, that the problem of radical Islamic fundamentalism still remains on the agenda. Though extremists also are tired out in a underground, they at any time can appear, how it already happened in October, 1981, when was killed (or is executed) Sadat.

As to secular opposition, that, having come to authority, the president at once has declared readiness to start dialogue with its leaders. He has resolved activity of opposition parties, and even their representation in parliament. Besides he has agreed with renewal of the edition of newspapers of opposition.

Aspiring to strengthen the position, and at the same time being compelled to be considered with supporters Sadata, kept key posts in the political and economic life, the new president started to carry out gradual "desadatation". Under his direct instruction were prosecuted the brother of the deceased -president Ismat Sadat and his sons supervising roguish operations. Process above them has allowed Mubarak to show the determination to liquidate corruption in the Egyptian society.

The majority of those who watched activity Mubarak at the initial stage, unanimously marked, that he has declared himself as the figure of " new type ". When him have asked: " You are going to follow What political line - of Nasere or of Sadat? ", he has answered with a smile: " Own, certainly ".

On the spot has specified, that his policy will be based on four principles: democratic pluralism, an openness, honesty and the decision of economic problems.

No, president Mubarak did not call in question (anyway, public) the basic directions of a political rate of the predecessor. But tried to expand freedom of actions in the inherited frameworks, refusing simultaneously from sensational gestures in style of Sadat. Moreover, he did not try to disguise verbal demagogy problems facing to Egypt as it was done by the former leader. In opposite to Sadat Mubarak did not undertake ostentatious attempts to solve internal problems by reviewing the study. But in the first speeches he constantly called for growth of labour productivity, amplification of feeling of the responsibility, to social justice.

As against Sadat new the head of the state abstained from promises, but invariable tried to give a new pulse to economic policy. He slowly but to develop began truly in Egypt democracy, trusting what exactly it will provide in long-term prospect political stability to a mode. It is more than that, he has frankly declared people, that the government can solve all problems facing to it.

- New Egypt will be constructed only by work of Egyptians, - the president likes to repeat.

Nevertheless, Mubarak in the intention to improve economy still recognizes that "infitah" - the policy of open doors begun by Sadat, basically was correct, but it was put into practice unsuccessfully and was discredited corruption, reigned in Egypt. Having received thanking Camp-Daving to agreements "special" attitudes from USA, president Mubarak tried to squeeze out from them a maximum possible. Both in political, and in the economic plan, skilfully playing on aspiration of Americans to be fixed on Near East.

Using such trump card as threat of freezing, and even a severance of diplomatic relations with Israel, Mubarak has received to some extent to influence a middle East policy of USA. Certainly, a degree of this influence to overestimate does not cost, but it, undoubtedly, is.

President Mubarak, certainly, appreciates communications of Egypt and USA as receives from them two, and even it is more, billions dollars annually as gratuitous gifts, loans and military credits. These injections of steel for him that "lifebuoy ring" which keeps on shallow the Egyptian economy.

But also here there are strict limits on cooperation, is especial at a political level. So, for example, on the offer of USA to help with construction of military base on Red sea for the forces of fast expansion the Egyptian president has answered with resolute refusal.He has declared, that Egypt will construct its itself and will keep there the control. Americans can use it when Cairo will consider military intervention of Washington necessary.

Never refusing "special" attitudes from USA, Mubarak at the same time has made appreciable efforts for restoration of normal diplomatic relations with Soviet Union which were completely normalized in 1984. Practically all obstacles, long time braking development of attitudes between our countries today are eliminated.

It is not necessary to think, however, that " independent flight " passed president Mubaraka smoothly. The Israeli intrusion into Lebanon in June, 1982 has caused internal pressure on Mubarak with the purpose to change character of the egipetsko-Israeli attitudes. One more test for him steel of excitement of 17 thousand employees of forces of the internal safety, having a place in February, 1986. The army has quickly suppressed these excitements, and the president, due to resolute actions, has strengthened the positions even more.


In October, 1987 the National assembly of Egypt unanimously has selected Hosny Mubarak the president on the second six-year term. In November of the same year the League of Arabian countries (LAC) has made the decision that its members can restore if will wish, full diplomatic relations with Egypt. Nine countries, including Saudi Arabia, almost immediately have directed the ambassadors to Cairo.

In December of the same year in Cairo the flag above representation of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was lifted. Thus Mubarak has shown, that Egypt again is ready to play a role of the "traffic controller" assisting negotiations PLO and USA, Jordan and Israel about convocation of peace conference on Near East.

One of the key factors which have defined finally success of a strategic rate of diplomacy Mubarak on full returning of Egypt in the Arabian numbers, precisely thought over, consecutive behaviour of Cairo in its contacts to Tel Aviv was. From the moment of coming to power by the new president very successful form of the attitude of Egypt to Israel was produced: " Prospects of development of bilaterial communications are defined by the general situation on Near East, process of middle East settlement ".

Such formulation (and Mubarak followed it strictly) enabled to hold Israel on respectful distance. On the other hand, the similar position obviously directed on protection common Arabian of interests, could not remain unnoticed in the Arabian capitals.

Has not remained unnoticed and such fact: president Mubarak - the unique Egyptian head of a high rank whom has refused to visit Israel, despite of numerous official invitations. To tell the truth, when him already "have absolutely got", and he could not resist to pressing, he had to go at some o'clock per the small Israeli settlement located in desert Negev. " I have made it against my heart... " - he has admitted later.

Besides the Egyptian president willingly offered the services for settlement of many bilateral conflicts, for example, irano-Iraq. All this has helped creation of completely new representation about Egypt, radical image distinguished from Sadat's representation. In many respects this was promoted also by the person of Mubarak.