Ministry of Education and Sport of Republic of Kazakhstan
L.N.Gumilev National Eurasian University
Essay on the Theme:
Fulfilled by: Nurmaganbetova Gulshat
Astana – 2002
A Brief History of University
Structure of the Oxford University
Staff of the University
Teaching and Research
Oxford is renowned the world over, as the home of one of the oldest and most highly revered Universities in Europe. The city lies at the confluence of the Rivers Cherwell and Thames, or "Isis", as it is locally known, giving the opportunity for boating, punting and many pleasant riverside walks. Oxford is a compact city; its main streets radiate from Carfax Tower in the centre, with most of the colleges and University buildings all within easy walking distance. It was Mathew Arnold whose description lingers in the mind, and best sums up Oxford. "And that sweet City with her dreaming spires, she needs not June for beauty's heightening". Just outside the City on Boar's Hill is the best place to see an overall view of the "dreaming spires", a hauntingly beautiful and unforgettable sight.
The University Church of St. Mary the Virgin - First mentioned in the Domesday Book, one of the best views of Oxford is from the magnificent tower, which was built in the 13th century, the nave dates from the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Ashmolean Museum - Britain's oldest public museum, housing the University's collections of paintings, glass, silver, ceramics and artefacts from the ancient world.
Other Museums in Oxford - Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Oxford, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, the Bate Collection and the Pitt Rivers Museum.
The Radcliffe Camera (closed to the public) a rotunda, whose dome is a landmark in Oxford's centre, was designed by James Gibb (1737-49). Inspired by the Tower of the Winds in Athens, it is regarded as one of Europe's most beautiful buildings. It originally housed the Radcliffe Library, today the 16 sided room on the ground floor is a reading room for the Bodleian Library.
The Bodleian Library - 15th century Divinity School, 17th century Old Schools Quadrangle and Exhibition Room.
Carfax Tower - 16th century church tower and viewpoint.
Curioxity - Hands on science exhibits for all ages.
The Oxford Story - Ride through exhibition interpreting the fascinating 800 year history of Oxford University.
Sheldonian Theatre - The ceremonial hall of the University designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
University of Oxford Botanic Gardens - Opposite Magdalen College in Rose Lane is the oldest Botanic Gardens in Britain. Laid out in 1621 on the instructions of Henry, Earl of Danby, as a Physic Garden. Entrance is through the beautiful Italianate Gateway designed by Nicholas Stone, beautiful flowerbeds, trees and greenhouses filled with rare plants, collected over the centuries from around the world. The gardens are in a beautiful and peaceful setting, bounded on one side by the curve of the River Cherwell.
Nearby at Magdalen Bridge punts are available for hire on the Cherwell and the Thames, other boat houses are located at Bardwell Road and Folly Bridge, St. Aldates.
The famous Christ Church Meadow, painted by J.M.W. Turner, still exists and provides rural walkways in the heart of the city.
Today's Oxford, offers interesting shopping facilities, from the well-known high street names, modern shopping centres and malls to the interesting Victorian covered market in the High Street. From the University's shop, to many small specialists, offering old maps and prints, books, jewellery and local souvenirs you will find shopping interesting in Oxford.
When it comes to eating out, you will have no trouble finding just the right place. Oxford is well experienced in catering for customers from around the world, of all ages and all tastes. There is a wide choice from Coffee Houses through to gourmet Restaurants.
Entertainment in Oxford is as interesting as you would expect in this university city. The Apollo Theatre is the largest theatre, where visiting international touring companies present a mix of musicals, shows and rock and pop concerts. At Oxford Playhouse, leading international, national and local theatre companies make up a varied programme of high quality drama, dance, music and opera presented in this newly refurbished Georgian Theatre. There are other smaller theatres where you can see Drama and Comedy from the University's leading players. Classical music concerts are held in the Sheldonian Theatre, Christ Church Cathedral and other famous Oxford settings.
here exists an amiable dispute, about which college in Oxford is the oldest, and may be determined thus. - University College had the first benefactor and indirectly, founder and the first property. Balliol College first occupied a site it has never left. Merton College had the first statutes establishing a collegiate institution.
Map of Oxford dated 1644 The University Church in 1726
Oxford is a unique and historic institution. As the oldest English-speaking university in the world, it lays claim to eight centuries of continuous existence. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
In 1188, the historian, Gerald of Wales, gave a public reading to the assembled Oxford dons and in 1190 the arrival of Emo of Friesland, the first known overseas student, initiated the University's tradition of international scholarship. By 1201, the University was headed by a magister scolarum Oxonie, on whom the title of Chancellor was conferred in 1214, and in 1231 the masters were recognized as a universitas or corporation.
In the 13th century, rioting between town and gown (students and townspeople) hastened the establishment of primitive halls of residence. These were succeeded by the first of Oxford's colleges, which began as medieval 'halls of residence' or endowed houses under the supervision of a Master. University, Balliol and Merton Colleges, established between 1249 and 1264, were the oldest.
Less than a century later, Oxford had achieved eminence above every other seat of learning, and won the praises of popes, kings and sages by virtue of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges. In 1355, Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning; he also commented on the services rendered to the state by distinguished Oxford graduates.
Oxford early on became a centre for lively controversy, with scholars involved in religious and political disputes. John Wyclif, a 14th-century Master of Balliol, campaigned for a bible in the vernacular, against the wishes of the papacy. In 1530, Henry VIII forced the University to accept his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. During the Reformation in the 16th century, the Anglican churchmen Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley were tried for heresy and burnt at the stake in Oxford. The University was Royalist in the Civil War, and Charles I held a counter-Parliament in Convocation House.
In the late 17th century, the Oxford philosopher John Locke, suspected of treason, was forced to flee the country. The 18th century, when Oxford was said to have forsaken port for politics, was also an era of scientific discovery and religious revival. Edmund Halley, Professor of Geometry, predicted the return of the comet that bears his name; John and Charles Wesley's prayer meetings laid the foundations of the Methodist Society.
The University assumed a leading role in the Victorian era, especially in religious controversy. From 1811 onwards The Oxford Movement sought to revitalise the Catholic aspects of the Anglican Church. One of its leaders, John Henry Newman, became a Roman Catholic in 1845 and was later made a Cardinal. In 1860 the new University Museum was the site of a famous debate between Thomas Huxley, the champion of evolution, and Bishop Wilberforce.
From 1878, academic halls were established for women, who became members of the University in 1920. Since 1974, all but one of Oxford's 39 colleges have changed their statutes to admit both men and women. St Hilda's remains the only women's college.
In the years since the war, Oxford has added to its humanistic core a major new research capacity in the natural and applied sciences, including medicine. In so doing, it has enhanced and strengthened its traditional role as a focus for learning and a forum for intellectual debate.
Oxford is an independent and self-governing institution, consisting of the central University and the Colleges.
The Vice-Chancellor, who holds office for seven years, is effectively the 'Chief Executive' of the University. Three Pro-Vice-Chancellors have specific, functional responsibility for Academic Matters, Academic Services and University Collections, and Planning and Resource Allocation. The Chancellor, who is usually an eminent public figure elected for life, serves as the titular head of the University, presiding over all major ceremonies.