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History of The Beatles - Реферат

After the world tour completed, Paul McCartney released "Thrilling ton," an instrumental version of "Ram," under the pseudonym of Percy "Thrills" Thrilling ton in 1977. Later that year, Wings released "Mull of Kindred," which became the biggest-selling British single of all time, selling over two million copies. It was followed several months later by the 1978 album "London Town," which became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK. Later that year, Wings released their first Greatest Hits album "Wings Greatest." After its release, Wings released "Back to the Egg" in 1979. But the album was a relative flop, though it became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK. Later in 1979, Wings embarked on their British tour; early in 1980, Wings intended to embark on their first Japanese tour; but McCartney was arrested for marijuana possession at Narita Airport; he was imprisoned for 10 days and then released, without any charges being pressed; but their first Japanese tour was cancelled.

In May 1980, Paul McCartney released "McCartney II," which was a one-man band effort like his solo debut. It was more successful than Wings' "Back to the Egg." Later that year, however, McCartney was thunderstruck at the news of John Lennon's assassination. The following year, he effectively broke up Wings. McCartney entered the studio with Beatles producer George Martin to make his solo album "Tug of War." In April 1982, he released "Tug of War." The album received the best reviews of any McCartney record since "Band On The Run," which became a number one hit in the US and UK. It also produced the number one single "Ebony and Ivory," a duet with Stevie Wonder that became McCartney's biggest American hit. Later that year, "The Girl Is Mine," a duet with Michael Jackson, was released as the first single from Michael Jackson's blockbuster album "Thriller"; the single became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK. In 1983, Paul released "Pipes Of Peace." Though the album was a relative flop, it spawned the number one single "Say -Say -Say," a duet with Michael Jackson that is currently the last number one single of his career in the US; it also generated another number one smash, "Pipes Of Peace," which is currently the last number one single of his career in the UK.

In 1984, McCartney released the soundtrack, "Give My Regards to Broad Street," which featured new songs and re-recorded Beatles tunes. Though McCartney's first feature film was a flop, the soundtrack became his British number one album, generating a Top 10 hit single "No More Lonely Nights." Later that year, Paul had another British Top 10 hit single "We All Stand Together," the theme to the video "Rupert and the Frog Song," under the name of Paul McCartney And The Frog Chorus. The following year, McCartney scored a Top 10 hit with "Spies like us," the theme to the film "Spies like us," which is currently his last American Top 10 single. With the release of "Press to Play" in 1986, his commercial fortunes started to slip somewhat; in fact, the album was a flop. In 1987, Paul released his second Greatest Hits album "All the Best!" It spawned the Top 10 single "Once upon a Long Ago," which is currently his last British Top 10 single. In 1988, McCartney recorded a collection of rock & roll oldies called "CHOBA B CCCP" for release in the USSR; it was given official release internationally in 1991. After he co-wrote several songs with Elvis Costello, Paul released "Flowers in the Dirt" in 1989. The album received the strongest reviews of any McCartney release since "Tug Of War," which became the British number one album. Later in 1989, Paul McCartney embarked on an extensive international tour, which was a considerable success. The "Get Back Tour" was captured on the 1990 live double-album "Tripping The Live Fantastic."

In 1991, McCartney released another live album in the form of "Unplugged," which was taken from his appearance on MTV's acoustic concert programme of the same name; it was the first "Unplugged" album to be released. Later that year, he unveiled his first classical work, "Liverpool Oratorio." Early in 1993, McCartney released "Off the Ground." Though the album was mauled by the critics and was a flop, he supported the album with his successful "New World Tour." Later that year, he released another live album "Paul Is Live"; he also released an ambient techno album, "strawberries oceans ships forest", under the pseudonym of the fireman. On March 23rd 1995, Paul premiered his classical piece for solo piano, "A Leaf," at St. James's Palace. In April 1995, he released the piece for solo piano in the UK. However, his primary activity in 1994, as well as 1995, was the Beatles' Anthology. After "Anthology" was completed, Paul McCartney released "Flaming Pie" in 1997. "Flaming Pie" received the strongest reviews of any McCartney release since "Flowers in the Dirt" and hit number two in the US and UK. It was nominated for a Grammy as "Album of the Year". Later that year, Paul McCartney unveiled his second large-scale classical work, the symphonic poem "Standing Stone" and became a number one hit classical work in the US and UK.

In April 1998 Paul McCartney was bereaved of his beloved wife Linda McCartney by reason of her disease: breast cancer. Later that year, however, McCartney unveiled his second ambient dance album, "Rushes," under the pseudonym of the Fireman. On the solo album from Linda McCartney, titled "Wide Prairie," he sings backing vocals and plays a variety of instruments; Paul produced the album as the definitive collection of all the songs recorded by Linda over the past 25 years. Beyond a total heartbreak, Paul McCartney is getting back to where he should belong.

Paul McCartney was honored on March 15, 1999 with an induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In celebration, Capitol Records released the 25th Anniversary remastered, limited edition reissue of Paul McCartney & Wings' chart-topping, Grammy award-winning, and all time best-selling albums "Band on the Run" in the US.

Paul McCartney had done his first exhibit: the Painting of Paul McCartney in Siegen, Germany from 1st May until 25th July 1999.

In October, 1999, "Run Devil Run," Paul's first album since Linda's death in April 1998, was released worldwide. Recorded in two quick-burst sessions at Studio 2, Abbey Road, from 1 March to 5 May, 1999, the 15-track album includes his interpretations of 12 songs chosen not for musical merit but for reasons of pure nostalgia that were his favorite '50s rock'n'roll as a teenager, as well as three new songs Paul wrote in a '50s style. The hand-picked band was the classic rock'n'roll line-up of bass, guitar and drums. McCartney (bass, guitar, vocals) - accompanied by Pink Floyd's David Gilmour (guitar), Mick Green (guitar), Deep Purple's Iran Piece (drums), Pete Winfield (keyboards), Dave Mattacks (drums), Geraint Watkins (keyboard) and Chris Hall (Accordion) - recreated that golden age of rock'n'roll. Although recent Beatle myth has enshrined John Lennon as the Beatles' rocker and Paul McCartney as the Beatles' balladeer, "Run Devil Run" must remind you of Paul as the rocker. (You know Paul composed not only the best-known ballade such as "Yesterday" and "Let It Be" but punchy hard rock such as "I'm Down" and "Helter Skelter".)

On the other hand, Paul McCartney unveiled his third classical album, titled "Working Classical," in the UK on October 18, 1999. That's just two weeks after the release of "Run Devil Run." The album features McCartney's first foray into chamber music, including two pieces for small orchestra: "A Leaf" and "Spiral." The classical album became No.1 on the Billboard classical charts.

On Tuesday, December 14th, 1999, Sir Paul McCartney rocked the Cavern - the Liverpool club where he and the Beatles found stardom - for the first time in 36 years. The show - Paul's first at the Cavern Club since The Beatles last played there on August 3rd, 1963 - was his 281st show at The Cavern. His historic concert was a "one-off, end of the millennium tribute to rock and roll". Due to the expected demand for tickets, and in an attempt to be fair for all, however, tickets for "Paul at the Cavern" were available through a national (UK) raffle. Therefore, only 150 fans picked from an international ballot could pack the Cavern. But the concert was carried live in cyberspace too. As at least three million people across the globe watched his performance through a live web cast at one time, it set a new world record as the biggest musical gig in the history of the Internet. A further 15,000 fans gathered in wintry conditions in Liverpool's Chavasse Park, where a huge video screen showed the concert live. Thus, Paul and his band (Dave Gilmour and Mick Green on guitars, Iran Piece on drums, Pete Wingfield on keyboards and Chris Hall on Accordion) rocked out the end of the century. They "rocked Liverpool and the world bopped too." His 13-song performance lasted a little over 40 minutes and included "I Saw Her Standing There," a Beatles song from the Cavern years. But other songs were the classic rock and roll mostly from his album "Run Devil Run".