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History of The Beatles - Реферат

In the mist of the sixties' psychedelic, and after a great disillusion with the spiritual world, John met the woman who was to become his life partner: Yoko Ono. She was an avant-garde, Japanese American artist, six years his senior. Soon after they met, and in spite of public outrage they were inseparable. John decided to leave his wife and marry Yoko, who was being dubbed by the press as "the dragon lady", the woman who had cast a spell on "prince charming". They didn't seem to care.

John married Yoko in March 20th 1969. In Gibraltar in the years to come, she would be accused of creating tension between the Beatles, and ultimately forcing John away from the group, thus inciting to their 1970 break up. They became close collaborators, not only artistically or music, but also as peace promoters. They staged "bed-ins" during their honeymoon in Amsterdam; elaborate press conferences conducted from their honeymoon suite that centered on their peace efforts. Their marked eccentricities quickly alienated them with the British public opinion, and in the end they were force to seek refuge in America. And they fled for New York City.

John and Yoko settled in New York City, and he remained there for the rest of his life. There were clearly a great number of qualities in NYC that reminded John of his native Liverpool. He was also very attracted to the city's communication capabilities. In his opinion, New York was capital of the world. He even went as far as saying "If I'd lived in Roman times, I'd have lived in Rome. Where else? Today, America is the Roman Empire, and New York is Rome itself".

But as fond as John and Yoko were of New York City, not all New Yorkers were particularly fond of the Lennon's. Politicians and government organizations, specially, thought that they could only mean trouble. An exhaustive undercover prosecution campaign against John would later unveil the tight scrutiny they were under. The FBI went as far as tapping their telephone conversations, and having agents pose as groupies or fans, all in an effort to deport them. Between December 1971 and August 1972, John and Yoko collaborated with numerous protests and spoke out whenever they felt worthy a cause. Good examples of this are Benefit at Apollo, where they performed "Attica State", protesting in favor of the infamous upraising in the prison and the Geraldo Rivera One to one concert.

The pressures of their hectic lifestyles, combined with the ones of the outside world, finally affected the couple. After only three years of marriage, John and Yoko decided to take a brake from each other. That two year period would later be known as John's infamous "lost weekend". John took off May Pang, his assistant and with some of his old friends, feeling carefree for the first time since he was 20. He reunited with Ringo, and helped him work on his album, and also played with the likes of David Bowie and Elton John. He was a bachelor once again, but only enjoyed it for a short period, before he started to long for home.

Yoko Ono developed into her own person, after being criticized for so long, and being in the shadow of the genius of John. She became very active in the Avant-garde New York scene, regaining her place as an accomplished artist. She would often check in with May Pang, to catch up with his life without him finding out.

John's work during this 18 month period clearly reflect the pain that being away from his beloved Yoko caused him. "What you got" "Nobody loves you when you're down and out" and "Sweet bird of paradox" share the same theme: Fear of abandonment and isolation. Even "whatever" gets you through the night, the peppy single that propelled him back to the top of the charts, was based on the assumption that getting by alone is not easy. Soon it became clear to everyone who knew him that Yoko was not only the woman under John's shadow; she was also indispensable to him.

John and Yoko finally got back together in 1974, after being set up at an Elton John concert, where John was making a guest appearance. They would remain together for the rest of his life. In 1975, John retired from public life, after releasing his last album of new material. On October 9 of that same year, Yoko gave birth to Sean Lennon, after several miscarriages. John was delighted with his life as a "house husband" and decided to stay home, to take care of Sean, while Yoko took care of business. He felt no urge to record or release any music during the next five years, although he continued to write songs as always. From time to new he would release statements, or give interviews, but amazingly he managed to regain his private person status and his inner peace. Sean had given him a second chance at parenting just as Yoko had given him a second shot at love. He kept away from the same music business he had pursuit with so much enthusiasm before.

With the release of 1980's "Double Fantasy" John came back to the public eye. In this album, at the age of 40 he targeted audience had changed from screaming teenage girls to an entire generation: His generation, his age group. "How did things turn out for you" he seemed to asked the same persons he had moved to believe that "all you need is love" and to Imagine. The album was an immediate success, mainly because of the honesty of the songs it contained. The plans of a follow up album were cut drastically short, as so was his life. In December 8, 1980, in front of his NYC home, he was shot down by Mark David Chapman and died instantly. The unfinished "Milk and Honey" was released in 1984 by Yoko Ono.

John Lennon's legend lives on and will remain alive as long as his vision of peace and love keep inspiring new generations of dreamers - To Love and Imagine.

Paul McCartney

Paul McCartney was born in 1942 in Walton Hospital, which on the Rice Lane. His parents was Jim and Mary McCartney. 7 January 1944 was born his brother, called Pitter Michael McCartney. Together they recorded some good songs.

In 1957 Paul joined Quarrymen, in 1960 re-named in Beatles. There he was since 1970 with John Lennon, Gorge Harrison and Ringo Starr.

Out of all the former Beatles, Paul McCartney by far had the most successful solo career, maintaining a constant presence in the British and American charts during the '70s and '80s. In America alone, he had nine number one singles and seven number one albums during the first 12 years of his solo career. Although he sold records, McCartney never attained much critical respect, especially when compared to his former partner John Lennon.

Following his first marriage to Linda Eastman on March 12, 1969, Paul McCartney began working at his home studio on his first solo album. He released the record, "McCartney", in April 1970, two weeks before the Beatles' "Let It Be" was scheduled to hit the stores. Prior to the album's release, he announced that the Beatles were breaking-up, which was against the wishes of the other members. As a result, the tensions between him and the other three members, particularly George Harrison and John Lennon, increased and he earned the ill-will of many critics. Nevertheless, "McCartney" became a hit, spending three weeks at the top of the American charts. Early in 1971, he returned with "Another Day", which became his first hit single as a solo artist. It was followed several months later by "Ram", another home-made collection, this time featuring the contributions of his wife Linda.

He wanted to be in a rock band. Within a year after the Beatles' break-up, McCartney had formed Wings. In December 1971, Wings released their first album, "Wings Wild Life." However, the album was greeted with poor reviews and was a relative flop. After they released three singles: "Give Ireland Back to the Irish," "Mary Had A Little Lamb" and "Hi, Hi, Hi" in 1972, Paul McCartney & Wings released "Red Rose Speedway" in 1973. Regardless of weak reviews, the album became McCartney's second American number one album, and generated his number one hit single "My Love." That same year they scored another Top 10 hit with "Live and Let Die," the theme to the James Bond movie. In December 1973, Paul McCartney & Wings released their best-reviewed album "Band on the Run." The album became a number one hit in the US and UK, eventually going triple platinum.

Following the success of "Band on the Run," Wings released "Venus and Mars" in May 1975. The album also hit number one in the US and UK. As for 1976's "Wings at the Speed of Sound," the album became a number one hit in the US, and produced two Top 10 hits: "Silly Love Song" and "Let 'Am In." Following the release of those two albums, Wings embarked on their first international tour which broke many attendance records; their first US tour was captured on the 1976 live triple-album "Wings over America." The live album also became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK, regardless of the live triple-album.