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Replacement Housing - Реферат

Кубанский государственный аграрный университет

Кафедра иностранных языков

Реферат

на тему:

"Replacement Housing."

("Помещения для ремонтного молодняка")

Подготовил: студент группы СТ-21

Деревенец Ф. Н.

Краснодар, 1998

Contents

Management factors. Affecting design 5

Facility management 6

Herd size and makeup 6

Management groups 7

Resting space 8

Feeding and watering space 8

Handling and treatment facilities 9

Prep room 9

Feed and bedding storage 9

Cold housing 11

Warm housing 12

Calf housing (up to weaning) 12

Hutches in Cold Housing 13

Hutch management 17

Individual Pen in Cold Housing 17

Individual Stall in Warm Housing 17

Transition housing (3-5 months) 20

Calf Shelter or Super Hutch 22

Transition Barn 22

Calf Barn 23

Heifer housing (6-24 months) 26

Freestall Housing 27

Two-row freestall barn 27

Two-row graduated freestall barn 28

Two-row gated freestall 29

Drive-through gated freestall 31

Bedded Pack 31

Counter-sloped barn 31

Optional outside lots 32

Факторы управления. Воздействие на проект. 34

Средства управления 35

Размеры и структура стада. 35

Управление группами 37

Помещения для отдыха 38

Пространство для кормления 38

Обработка и средства обработки 39

Подготовительное помещение 39

Хранение корма и подстилок 39

Холодное помещение 41

Теплое помещение 42

Помещения для телят (вплоть до отлучения) 43

Клетки в холодном помещении 43

Управление клетками 44

Индивидуальные загоны в холодном помещении 44

Индивидуальное стойло в теплом помещении 45

Переходное помещение (3-5 месяцев) 47

Укрытие для теленка или первоклассная клетка 49

Переходный сарай 50

Сарай для телят 52

Помещение для нетелей (6-24 месяцев) 52

Боксовые помещения 53

Двухрядный боксовый сарай 53

Двухрядный дифференцированный боксовый сарай 54

Двухрядный закрываемый бокс 55

Сквозной закрываемый бокс 56

Подстилочный узел 56

Встречно-наклонный сарай 57

Дополнительный внешний участок 59

As replacement heifers grow, their needs change. This includes a change in needed physical environment. When a heifer is young, it is physically separated from other animals to minimize the risk of disease. As it grows, it is grouped with other animals to increase resistance to disease and prepare the animal for the breeding herd. Eventually the animal enters the breeding herd and finally the milking herd.

Each stage of production requires housing to meet the physical needs of the animal.

Management factors. Affecting design

House replacement animals in separate facilities away from the milking herd to foster a healthy environment for each group. Well-designed and properly-managed replacement animal housing allows the ability to adopt the best management practices currently recommended. Plan space, equipment, environment, rations and care to meet the needs of each group. Manage replacements in groups according to their specific requirements. Facility design should allow for easy implementation of the management plan for each group. When planning replacement animal housing, provide:

  • Adequate resting and exercise space.

  • Covered, dry and draft-free resting area.

  • Good quality fresh air.

  • Adequate space for feed and water.

  • Space to group animals by size or age.

  • Clean lots to maintain sanitary conditions.

  • Isolation area for sick animals.

  • Observation area for animals.

  • Treatment facilities.

  • Space for handling and restraint of animals.

Poorly planned or improperly managed animal housing increases the risk of disease or injury. High humidities are especially detrimental to animal health. Pneumonia, scours and other diseases can permanently damage vital body organs and reduce milk producing potential of an animal. Calves and heifers raised in a poor environment may never reach their full genetic potential for milk production.

Facility management

For healthy, high producing replacement animals, provide high quality housing and a management plan that addresses animals' needs. Good management, understanding what to do and then doing it on schedule, is important to the success of any housing system. Sanitation, stall maintenance, bedding, ventilation control, feeding, herd health, treatment and close observation are all important management practices. Young animals may need training and/or time to get accustomed to using freestalls. Daily or routine chores such as feeding, stall maintenance or manure removal should be made as convenient as possible to make sure they are accomplished in a timely manner.

Herd size and makeup

Herd size can mean either the number of cows actually milking or mature cows both dry and milking. In this handbook, the herd size is the number of mature cows.

Typical herd makeup, assuming uniform calving year-round, is given in Table 1. The numbers in the table reflect no culling of heifers or calves. Use this table to determine housing needed for each management group. Provide:

  • Calf housing (0-2 months).

  • Transition housing (3-5 months).

  • Heifer housing:

  • 6-8 months

  • 9-12 months

  • 13-15 months (breeding age)

  • 16-24 months

The number of replacement animals to be housed depends on the number of milking cows and bred heifers. As herd size increases, so does number of replacements. Increasing herd size without expanding facilities for replacements results in crowding which can increase injury, disease transmission, and lower growth rates.

Table 1. Typical management categories of a herd.1

This table is only a management guideline. These are categories and not group size

Herd size = total cows

75

100

250

400

Calves and heifers

0-2 months, 150 lb

3-5 months, 250 lb

6-8 months, 400 lb

9-12 months, 600 lb

13-15 months, 800 lb

16-24 months, 1,000 lb

75

6

9

9

14

9

29

100

8

12

12

18

12

38

250

20

30

30

45

30

95

400

32

48

48

72

48

152

Dry cows

Transition (first 4-14 days)

Next 40 days

(Divide in 2 groups)

Close-up

(2-3 weeks prepartum)

13

0-4

8-9

2-5

17

1-5

11-12

3-6

43

4-9

28-30

8-15

68

5-16

45-48

16-24

Maternity (individual pens)

3-5

4-6

10-16

16-24

Fresh cows

(from 0-7 days postpartum)

1-3

1-4

3-10

4-12

Two-years-old (305 days)2

18-24

26-30

65-75

104-120

Three years and older (305 days) b

High producers

(120 days or less)

Medium producers

Low producers

44

15-18

12-15

12-15

58

20-24

16-20

16-20

145

50-60

40-50

40-50

232

80-96

60-72

60-72

Sick cows

0-4

0-5

0-13

0-20

Management groups

Separating replacement animals into groups according to age, size or special management needs allows each group to be treated according to its needs. Plan building space and layout for these groups of animals using Tables 2 and 3. More than one group can be housed in the same building, but allow for managing each group separately. In larger herds, separate facilities may be provided for each group. Some of the benefits of managing animals in groups are:

  • Healthier animals by minimizing the risk of transmitting disease to younger animals.

  • Good feed efficiency by reducing competition for feed.

  • Calving at proper weight and size at 24 months.

  • Feed handling ease, and proper diets according to age.

  • Manure handling ease.

  • Animal observation and handling ease for breeding, treatment and grouping.

  • Proper ventilation and environment.

  • Proper resting space or freestall size.

Space requirements for a particular operation depend on the housing system chosen and how replacements move from the resting area to feed and to water and back again. Herd size and makeup are guides to estimating the space needed for resting, but alley size, water space and bunk space must also be considered to accommodate the animals and provide an animal friendly environment.

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