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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → St-Peterburg - Реферат

St-Peterburg - Реферат

Department of public health RF.


Abstract on English by

Kuranov Alina Olegovna –

a student of Essentuki medical

college group №261



St-Peterburg is stillless then 300 years old: the age of the city on the Neva delta is calculated from 27 May (16 May old-style) 1703 - the day when the foundation of a new Russian fortress were laid on little Hare Island, intended to protect the territory around the Neva that had been won from the Swedesin the Northern War. The citadel was named (in Dutch style) Sankt Pieterburgh (Saint Peter's City); thus began the history of the capital of the Russian Empire, founded by Peter I.

However, St. Petersburg has its prehistory, just as other European capitals do. Paris was originally a settlemt of the Gallic tribe the Parisii called Lutetia, which the Romans made into a military base called Parisiorum or Parisia. London and Vienna grew up on the sites of Caltic setelements and Roman camps. A Moorish fortress formed the basis for Madrid.

St. Petersburg has played an exceptional role in the life of Russia. It is the second largest city in our country. St. Petersburg is the most northern capital in the world. It is on the latitude as Greenland, Alaska an Chukotka. This explains the white nights which are most clearly visible between 11 June and 2 July. The city is rather young. It was founded less than 300 years ago. The founder of St. Petersburg is Peter the Great, who laid the first stone of the Peter and Paul Fortress in 1703 on Hare island thus starting a new city. In 1712 it became the capital of Russia the centre of its political and cultural life.

St. Petersburg is one the greatest and most beautiful cities in the world. Its historical and cultural importance is as big as that of Paris, London or Rome. "Northern Palmira", "Northern Venice" attracts thousands of tourists from all over the world.

The first fortress appeared on the banks of the Neva, where St. Petersburg was subsequently established, 700 years ago;

Since the city is situated on the banks of a 41 island, it has hundreds of kilometers of quays and more than 300 bridges. Many quays were built not only as banks fortifications, but also as the architectural element of the space and expanse. The beautiful descents to the water line, ornamental elements made of stone and metal, sculptures, fine railings and lampposts -all this makes quays and bridges of Saint Petersburg one of the most popular sites, draw-ing the great attention of the city's amateurs.

It was a Swedish fortress called Landskrona ("Land's Crown"), built where the River Okhta flows into the Neva. A Russian village soon grew up around the fortress. This fortified setelement at the mouth of the Okhta has changed its name and even the state to which it has belonged, but has continued to exist virtually without a break.

Unfortunately, this impressive date - seven centuries of this fortress twon on the Neva within St. Petersburd's city boundaries - has passed almost unnoticed. The story of this suburb, rich and facinating in its own right, has always ramained in the shadow of the dazzlind history of the northern capital, but the medieval fortress in the Okhta mouth is an important landmark in the historical heritage of the peoples of Northen Europe.

The Neva has provided Russia with an access to the Baltic Sea since ancient time; it was from here that the celebrated water route "from the Vikings to the Greeks" started. The lands around the river were the focus for close cooperation, and at the same time military confrontation, between Novgorod the Great and Sweden.

Early in the summer of 1300 Swedish knights led by Tergils Knutsson carried out a sea-borne invation into Novgorod territory. They stooped at the mouth of the Okhta, where they built the Landskrona fortress on a pointed promontory. They dug a channal between the two rivers and filled it with water; then constructed an earthwork behind it, with wooden walls and towers. The arrivel of the Swedish "Land's Crown" threatened Russia with the loss of her access to the Baltic, so within a year the Novgorod army of Grand Prince Andrey Alexandrovich attacked the stronghold and captured it after a decisive assault. The fortress construction was destroyed.

A Russian settlemant soon arose on the ruins of Landskrona. Time has obliterated all traces of it, but archaeological finds tell us about life at that time - fragments of 14th century ceramic vassels, for example. Old documents refer to regular inter national trade in the Neva estuary; forein merchantes (mostly Hanseatic) had the right to moor and repair their vessels here. Goods brought in on ships were transferred to Novgorodian river boats. Foreign vessels could not ignore this strategically important and convenient spot on the Okhta promontory which was home both to preasants who cultivated the land and to tradespeople.

A chronicle of 1500, containing information about an outlying region of the Novgorod territory called the Vodskaya District names its outpost as the Village at the Mouth of the Okhta. We are indebted to the chronicles of Ivan 3, Grand Prince of Moskow, for the first reliable reference to the group of settlements on the site of modern St. Petersburg - in particular Lakhta, Pargolovo and Dudorovo (later Duderhof). Note the date of this chronicle: it was compiled exactly 500 years ago! Another anniversary connected with our city's prehistory.

The "village" was later called the Neva Estuary, or the Neva Town. It was destroyed on more than one occasion in the 16th century: in 1583, during the Russo-Swedish War, King John 3 of Sweden ordered new fortifications to be constructed on the site of the half-ruined ones. It seems that the interminable military actions of the time meant that Landskrona was rebuilte sometimes by the Russians, sometimes by the Swedes. In spite of all its reveres of fortune, the Russian settlement on the Okhta estuary developed into a city center. It was a bustlind place at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, containing the Sovereigns Arcade, the Church of the Archangl Michael (protector of warriors), a wharf and a Customs House, a sure sign of flourishing foreign trade.

During the "time of troubles" the fortress of Nienschants was built on the site of the Neva town in 1611, by order of King Charles 9 of Sweden; it was originally a small rectangular castle with a garrison of 600 men. The work was supervised by Commander Nienschats; this gradually increased in size to be a town called Nien. By the middle of the 17th century it had become an important transit point for international trade. After the storming of fortress by Russian detachments in 1656, Swedish engineer G. von Seilenberg built a new earthen castle with five basrions in the shape of a star; the approach to it was barred by rampart with three bastions. He constructed a bridge across the Okhta to link the fortress with the town proper on the right-hand side of the river.

The history of Nien came to an abrupt end in the fourth year of the Northern War: on 25 April 1703 a corps of 25,000 men under the command of Peter 1 and Field-Marshal Boris Sheremetyev launcher an assault on Nienschants. The fortress fell, and tradition has it that the Tsar planted an oak tree to mark the burial-ground of Russian troops killed in the attack. Peter renamed the Swedish citadel Schlotburg (Castle-town). The fortress of Noteburg, captured six months earlier, had already deen called Schlisselburg (Key-town). These symbolic names were evidence of Russia's lasting claim upon the land around the Neva.

The end of Nienschants marked the beginning of St. Petersburg, and the new city grew at a fantastic speed on the islands in the Neva delta. In 1709, after the victory at Poltava that determined the outcome of the Northern War, the fortifications at Nienschants were ceremonially blown up. In the mid-18th century Andrey Bogdanov, the first historian of St. Petersburg, called for the ruins to be preserved as a rare monument.