"There's a house-party," said Dinny to the young man's elevated eyebrows. "She means tails and a white tie."
"Oh! Ah! Best bib and tucker, Jean." (G.)
6. "What do you really contemplate doing?" "No Plaza? Not even when I'm in the ohips?" "Why are you so rich?" (J.O'H.)
7. "Obviously an emissary of Mr. Bunyan had obtained clandestine access to her apartment in her absence and purloined the communication in question." It took Lord Uffenham some moments to work this out, but eventually he unravelled it and was able to translate it from his butler's language. What the man was trying to say was that some low blister, bought with Bunyan's gold, had sneaked into the girl's flat and pinched the bally things. (P.G.W.)
8. ''I say, old boy, where do you hang out?" Mr. Pickwick responded that he was at present suspended at the George and Vulture. (D.)
9. "The only thing that counts in his eyes is solid achievement. Sometimes I have been prostrate with fatigue. He calls it idleness. I need the stimulation of good company. He terms this riff-raff. The plain fact is, I am misunderstood." (D. du M.)
10. "The scheme I would suggest cannot fail of success, but it has what may seem to you a drawback, sir, in that it requires a certain financial outlay."
"He means," I translated to Corky, "that he has a pippin of an idea but it's going to cost a bit." (P.G.W.)
11. Mrs. Sunbury never went to bed - she retired, but Mr. Sunbury who was not quite so refined as his wife always said: "Me for Bedford." (S.M.)
12. "He tried those engineers. But no soap. No answer." (J.O'H.)
13. "You want to know what I think? I think you're nuts. Pure plain crazy. Goofy as a loon. That's what I think." (J.)
14. The famous Alderman objected to the phrase in Canning's inscription for a Pitt Memorial "He died poor" and wished to substitute "He expired in indigent circumstances." (Luc.)
15. "I am Alpha and Omega - the first and the last," the solemn voice would announce. (D. du M.)
16. The tall man ahead of him half-turned saying "Gre't God! I never, I never in all my days seen so many folks." Mr. Munn thought that he, too, had never seen so many people, never before. (R.W.)
17. It may sound to some like cold-blooded murder of the English tongue, but American kids have been speaking a language of their own since they annoyed their Pilgrim parents at Plymouth Rock.
Ask a teen-ager today what he thought of last night's rock show. If he liked it, it was "wicked" or "totally awesome". But if he didn't, it was "groady" or "harsh".
Young people punctuate their sentences with slang. They drop phrases that would make Professor Henry Higgins turn over in his grave. Twice.
"It's just like a dictionary that only teen-agers understand," said Michael Harris, 17, a high school student in Richmond, Va. "You go home and you have to spell it for your parents. They don't even know what you're talking about."
But this has been going on for years. Slang is as old as English itself, says Stuart Berg Flexner, editor-in-chief of the Random House Dictionary, author of the Dictionary of American Slang.
It offended puritan parents that their Pilgrim children took their traditional farewell - God be with you - and turned it into "good-bye", Flexner says.
Today's words are obsolete tomorrow.
"I may call somebody a jerk, but today they would call him a nerd," says Flexner, 54. "Each generation seems to want to have some of its own words."
"It's not so much to shut out adults - although that's a part of it. It gives them identity with their own age group. They sort of belong to their own club," he says.
There is valleytalk and preppyspeak, jocktalk and street language.
Take Moon Unit Zappa's Valley Talk. The daughter of famed rocker Frank Zappa was 14years old when her dad sat her before a microphone and documented her language in a pop song.
"Gag me with a spoon," she says to show disgust. "Groady to themax."
Legions of youngsters across America picked it up. The song, and language, was a coast-to-coast hit. But that killed it.
"Valley Speak is out," reports Jane Segal, 16, a reformed Valley Girl at Santa Monica High School. "It went out after the song was played to death. It was really popular, and then everyone got so sick of the stupid song they quit saying that stuff."
"No one ever says 'Gag me' anymore," she says. "'Totally' is still hanging on, and everyone uses' "like". They say it everywhere, just sprinkle it in. I do it subconsciously, I use it like "um."
Flexner considers slang.a reflection of American pop culture. Words come and go like No. 1 hit songs. Once a word is widely known it may be dropped, relegated to the used-slang bin alongside "swell" from the '50s and "groovy" from the '60s.
Others stick around like golden oldies.
"There are classics. Once" a good phrase comes along it's pretty hard to replace it," says Scott Wenger, 19, a New York University student. "Flipped" out still means crazy and "pulling an allnighter" still means to study.hard until all hours of the morning for exams."
Teen-agers may dream up slang, but adults use it too. Julia Shields, 42, a high school English teacher in Charlottesville, Va., is an avowed user.
"I love slang, think it's colorful, wonderful, metaphoric. Some of it is quite clever," she says. "I hate it, but I call everything "neat". It's such a horrible, vague, meaningless word. But I use it in every sentence."
Slang is not the talk of board rooms and diplomatic sessions. Because young people spend more time informally than adults, and slang is a product of relaxing the rules, high schools and college campuses are breeding grounds for it. (C. R.)
IV. Speak about the difference between the contextual and the dictionary meanings of italicized words:
1. Mr. James Duffy lived in Chapelizod because he wished to live as far as possible from the city of which he was the citizen and because he found all the other suburbs of Dublin mean, modern and pretentious. (J.J.)
2. He does all our insurance examining and they say he's some doctor. (S.L.)
3. He seemed prosperous, extremely married and unromantic. (S.L.)
4. "What do you think?" The question pops their heads up. (K.K.)
5.We tooled the car into the street and eased it into the ruck of folks. (R.W.)
6. He inched the car forward. (A.H.)
7. "Of course it was considered a great chance for me, as he is so rich. And - and - we drifted into a sort of understanding - I suppose I should call it an engagement -"
"You may have drifted into it; but you will bounce out of it, my pettikins, if I am to have anything to do with it." (B.Sh.)
8. He sat with the strike committee for many hours in a smoky room and agonized over ways and means. (M.G.)
9. Betty loosed fresh tears. (Jn.B.)
10. When the food came, they wolfed it down rapidly. (A.M.)
11. He had seen many places and been many things railroad foreman, plantation overseer, boss mechanic, cow-puncher, and Texas deputy-sheriff. (J.R.)
12 Station platforms were such long, impersonal, dirty, ugly things, with too many goodbyes, lost hearts, and tears stamped into the concrete paving. (A. S.)
13. "Let me say, Virginia, that I consider your conduct most unbecoming. Nor at all that of a pure young widow."
"Don't be an idiot. Bill. Things are happening."
"What kind of things?"
"Queer things." (Ch.)
14. I need young critical things like you to punch me up. (S.L.)
15. Oh! the way the women wear their prettiest every thing' (T.C.)
Lexical Stylistic Devices
Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet.
Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron
You know by now that among multiple functions of the word the main one is to denote, denotational meaning thus being the major semantic characteristic of the word. In this paragraph we shall deal with the foregrounding of this particular function, i.e. with such types of denoting phenomena that create additional expressive, evaluative, subjective connotations. We shall deal in fact with the substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speaker's subjective original view and evaluation of things. This act of name-exchange, of substitution is traditionally referred to as transference, for, indeed, the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material existence, cause/ effect, instrument/result, part/whole relations, etc.).