8. They all lounged, and loitered, and slunk about, with as little spirit or purpose as the beasts in a menagerie. (D.)
9. "Luscious, languid and lustful, isn't she?" "Those are not the correct epithets. She is - or rather was - surly, lustrous and sadistic." (E.W.)
10. Then, with an enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the station. (A.S.)
"But I am whispering." This continual shushing annoyed him. (A.H.)
12. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are. Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. (Ch. R.)
13. Dreadful young creatures - squealing and squawking. (C.)
14. The quick crackling of dry wood aflame cut through the night. (Sl.H.)
15. Here the rain did not fall. It was stopped high above by that roof of green shingles. From there it dripped down slowly, leaf to leaf, or ran down the stems and branches. Despite the heaviness of the downpour which now purred loudly in their ears from just outside, here there was only a low rustle of slow occasional dripping. (J.)
II. Indicate the kind of additional information about the speaker supplied by graphon:
1. "Hey," he said, entering the library. "Where's the heart section?" "The what?"
He had the thickest sort of southern Negro dialect and the only word that came clear to me was the one that sounded like heart. "How do you spell it," I said.
"Heart, Man, pictures. Drawing books. Where you got them?" "You mean art books? Reproductions?" He took my polysyllabic word for it. "Yea, they's them." (Ph. R.)
2. "It don't take no nerve to do somepin when there ain't nothing else you can do. We ain't gonna die out. People is goin' on - changin' a little may be - but goin' right on." (J. St.)
3. "And remember, Mon-sewer O'Hayer says you got to straighten up this mess sometime today." (J.)
4. "I even heard they demanded sexual liberty. Yes, sir, Sex-You-All liberty." (J. K.)
5. "Ye've a duty to the public don'tcher know that, a duty to the great English public?" said George reproachfully. "Here, lemme handle this, kiddar," said Tiger. "Gorra maintain strength, you," said George. "Ah'm fightin' fit," said Tiger. (S. Ch.)
6. "Oh, that's it, is it?" said Sam. "I was afeerd, from his manner, that he might ha' forgotten to take pepper with that 'ere last cowcumber, he et. Set down, sir, ve make no extra charge for the settin' down, as the king remarked when he blowed up his ministers." (D.)
7. "Well, I dunno. I'll show you summat." (St.B.)
8. "De old Foolosopher, like Hickey calls yuh, ain't yuh?" (O'N.)
9. "I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon wail for the dwiver." (D.)
10. "The Count," explained the German officer, "expegs you, chentlemen, at eight-dirty." (С. Н.)
11. Said Kipps one day, "As'e - I should say, ah, has'e... Ye know, I got a lot of difficulty with them two words, which is which." "Well, "as" is a conjunction, and "has" is a verb." "I know," said Kipps, "but when is "has" a conjunction, and when is "as" a verb?" (H. W.)
12. Wilson was a little hurt. "Listen, boy," he told him. "Ah may not be able to read eve'thin' so good, but they ain't a thing Ah can't do if Ah set mah mind to it." (N.M.)
III. Think of the causes originating graphon (young age, a physical defect of speech, lack of education, the influence of dialectal norms, affectation, intoxication, carelessness in speech, etc.):
1. He began to render the famous tune "1 lost my heart in an English garden, Just where the roses of Kngland grow" with much feeling:
"Ah-ee last mah-ee hawrt een ahn Angleesh gawrden, Jost whahr thah rawzaz ahv Angland graw." (H.C.)
2. The stuttering film producer S.S. Sisodia was known as 'Whiwhisky because I'm papa partial to a titi tipple; mamadam, my caca card.' (S.R.)
3. She mimicked a lisp: "I don't weally know wevver I'm a good girl. The last thing he'll do would be to be mixed with a hovvid woman." (J.Br.)
4. "All the village dogs are no-'count mongrels, Papa says. Fish-gut eaters and no class a-tall; this here dog, he got insteek." (K.K.)
5. "My daddy's coming tomorrow on a nairplane." (S.)
6. After a hum a beautiful Negress sings "Without a song, the dahaywould nehever end." (U.)
7. "Oh, well, then, you just trot over to the table and make your little mommy a gweat big dwink." (E.A.)
8. "I allus remember me man sayin' to me when I passed me scholarship - "You break one o'my winders an' I'll skin ye alive." (St.B.)
9. He spoke with the flat ugly "a" and withered "r" of Boston Irish, and Levi looked up at him and mimicked "All right, I'll give the caaads a break and staaat playing." (N.M.)
10. "Whereja get all these pictures?" he said. "Meetcha at the corner. Wuddaya think she's doing out there?" (S.)
11. "Look at him go. D'javer see him walk home from school? You're French Canadian, aintcha?" (J.K.)
12. Usually she was implacable in defence of her beloved fragment of the coast and if the summer weekenders grew brazen, -getoutofitsillyoldmoo, itsthesoddingbeach, - she would turn the garden hose remorselessly upon them. (S.R.)
13. The demons of jealousy were sitting on his shoulders and he was screaming out the same old song, wheethehell whothe don't think you canpull the wool how dare you bitch bitch bitch. (S.R.)
IV. State the function of graphon in captions, posters, advertisements, etc. repeatedly used in American press, TV, roadside advertising:
1. Weather forecast for today: Hi 59, Lo 32, Wind lite.
2. We recommend a Sixty seconds meal: Steak-Umm.
3. Choose the plane with "Finah Than Dinah" on its side.
4. Best jeans for this Jeaneration.
5. Follow our advice: Drinka Pinta Milka Day.
6. Terry's Floor Fashions: We make 'em - you walk on 'em
7. Our offer is $ 15.00 per WK.
8. Thanx for the purchase.
9. Everybody uses our wunnerful Rackfeed Drills.
V. Analyse the following extract from Artemus Ward:
"Sit down, my fren," sed the man in black close; "yu miskomprehend me. I meen that the perlitercal ellermunts are orecast with black klouds, 4 boden a friteful storm."
"Wall," replide I, "in regard to perlittercal ellerfunts і don't know as how but what they is as good as enny other kind of ellerfunts. But і maik bold to say thay is all a ornery set and unpleasant to hav round. They air powerful hevy eaters and take up a right smart chans of room."
The man in black close rusht up to me and sed, "How dair yu insult my neece, yu horey heded vagabone? Yu base exhibbiter of low wax figgers - you woolf in sheep's close," and sow 4th.
VI. State the functions and the type of the following graphical expressive means:
1. Piglet, sitting in the running Kanga's pocket, substituting the kidnapped Roo, thinks:
this shall take
"If is I never to
flying really it." (M.)
2. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo We haven't enough to do-oo-oo. (R. K.)
3. "Hey," he said "is it a goddamn cardroom? or a latrine? Attensh -- HUT! Da-ress right! DHRESS! (J.)
4. "When Will's ma was down here keeping house for him - she used to run in to see me, real often." (S.L.)
5. He missed our father very much. He was s-l-a-i-n in North Africa. (S.)
6. "We'll teach the children to look at things. Don't let the world pass you by, I shall tell them. For the sun, I shall say, open your eyes for that laaaarge sun....." (A. W.)
7. "Now listen, Ed, stop that, now. I'm desperate. Iam desperate, Ed, do you hear?" (Dr.)
8. "Adieu you, old man, grey. I pity you, and I de-spise you." (D.)
9. "ALL our troubles are over, old girl," he said fondly. "We can put a bit by now for a rainy day." (S.M.)
10. His voice began on a medium key, and climbed steadily up till it reached a certain point, where it bore with strong emphasis upon the topmost word, and then plunged down as if from a spring board:
Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency
The basic unit of this level being a morpheme we shall concentrate on examining the ways of foregrounding a morpheme so that the latter, apart from its internet meaning, becomes vehicle of additional information - logical, emotive, expressive.
One important way of promoting a morpheme is its repetition.Both root and affixational morphemes can be emphasized through repetition. Especially vividly it is observed in the repetition of affixational morphemes which normally carry the main weight of the structural and not of the denotational significance. When repeated, they come into the focus of attention and stress either their logical meaning (e.g. that of contrast, negation, absence of quality as in prefixes a-, anti-, mis-; or of smallness as in suffixes -ling and -ette); their emotive and evaluative meaning, as in suffixes forming degrees of comparison; or else they add to the rhythmical effect and text unity.