To mark the break, dashes and dots are used. It is only in cast-iron structures that full stops may also appear, as in the well-known phrases "Good intentions, but", or "It depends".
Exercise IV. Discuss different types of stylistic devices dealing with the completeness of the sentence:
1. In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind. (D.)
2. Malay Camp. A row of streets crossing another row of streets. Mostly narrow streets. Mostly dirty streets. Mostly dark streets. (P. A.)
3. His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all on one side. (D.)
4. A solemn silence: Mr. Pickwick humorous, the old lady serious, the fat gentleman cautious and Mr. Miller timorous. (D.)
5. He, and the falling light and dying fire, the time-worn room, the solitude, the wasted life, and gloom, were all in fellowship. Ashes, and dust, and ruin! (D.)
6. She merely looked at him weakly. The wonder of him! The beauty of love! Her desire toward him! (Dr.)
7. Ever since he was a young man, the hard life on Earth, the panic of 2130, the starvation, chaos, riot, want. Then bucking through the planets, the womanless, loveless years, the alone years. (R.Br.)
8. H. The waves, how are the waves? C.: The waves? Lead. H.: And the sun? C.: Zero.
H.: But it should be sinking. Look again. C.: Damn the sun. H.: Is it night already then? C: No.
H.: Then what is it? C: Grey! Grey! GREY! H.: Grey! Did I hear you say grey? C.: Light black. From pole to pole. (S. B.)
9. I'm a horse doctor, animal man. Do some farming, too. Near Tulip, Texas. (T.C.)
10. "I'll go, Doll! I'll go!" This from Bead, large eyes larger than usual behind his hornrimmed glasses. (J.)
11. A black February day. Clouds hewn of ponderous timber weighing down on the earth: an irresolute dropping of snow specks upon the trampled wastes. Gloom but no veiling of angularity. The second day of Kennicott's absence. (S.L.)
12. And we got down at the bridge. White cloudy sky, with mother-of-pearl veins. Pearl rays shooting through, green and blue-white. River roughed by a breeze. White as a new file in the distance. Fish-white streak on the smooth pin-silver upstream. Shooting new pins. (J. C.)
13. This is a story how a Baggins had an adventure. He may have lost the neighbours' respect, but he gained - well, you will see whether he gained anything in the end. (A. T.)
14. "People liked to be with her. And —" She paused again, " - and she was crazy about you." (R.W.)
15. What I had seen of Patti didn't really contradict Kitty's view of her: a girl who means well, but. (D.U.)
16. "He was shouting out that he'd come back, that his mother had better have the money ready for him. Or else! That is what he said: "Or else!" It was a threat." (Ch.)
17. "Listen, I'll talk to the butler over that phone and he'll know my voice. Will that pass me in or do I have to ride on your back?''
"I just work here," he said softly. "If I didn't —" he let the rest hang in the air, and kept on smiling. (R.Ch.)
18. I told her, "You've always acted the free woman, you've never let any thing stop you from —" He checks himself, goes on hurriedly. "That made her sore." (J.O'H.)
19. "Well, they'll get a chance now to show -" Hastily: "I don't mean - But let's forget that." (O'N.)
20. And it was unlikely that anyone would trouble to look there -until - until - well. (Dr.)
21. There was no breeze came through the door. (H.)
22. I love Nevada. Why, they don't even have mealtimes here. I never met so many people didn't own a watch. (A. M.)
23. Go down to Lord and Taylors or someplace and get yourself something real nic&to impress the boy invited you. (J. K.)
24. There was a whisper in my family that it was love drove him out and not love of the wife he married. (J. St.)
ASSIGNMENTS FOR SELF-CONTROL
1. What syntactical stylistic devices deal with the completeness of sentence-structure?
2. What types of ellipses do you know and where is each of them used predominantly?
3. What member of the sentence represents "one-member sentences"?
4. Where are apokoinu constructions used?
5. What additional information about the act of communication and its participants is conveyed by the
6. What punctuation is used in the break?
7. Find examples of the above-mentioned SDs in your reading.
The arrangement of sentence members, the completeness of sentence structure necessarily involve various types of connection used within the sentence or between sentences. Repeated use of conjunctions is called polysyndeton; deliberate omission of them is, correspondingly, named asyndeton. Both polysyndeton and asyndeton, have a strong rhythmic impact. Besides, the function of polysyndeton is to strengthen the idea of equal logical (emotive) importance of connected sentences, while asyndeton, cutting off connecting words, helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose.
These two types of connection are more characteristic of the author's speech. The third type - attachment (gap-sentence, leaning sentence, link) on the contrary,' is mainly to be found in various representations of the voice of the personage - dialogue, reported speech, entrusted narrative. In the attachment the second part of the utterance is separated from the first one by a full stop though their semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong. The second part appears as an afterthought and is often connected with the beginning of the utterance with the help of a conjunction, which brings the latter into the foregrounded opening position. Cf: "It wasn't his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan't beg. I shall simply starve." (S.L.); "Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent." (T.C.)
Exercise V. Specify stylistic functions of the types of connection given below:
1. Then from the town pour Wops and Chinamen and Polaks, men and women in trousers and rubber coats and oilcloth aprons. They come running to clean and cut and pack and cook and can the fish. The whole street rumbles and groans and screams and rattles while the silver rivers of fish pour in out of the boats and the boats rise higher and higher in the water until they are empty. The canneries rumble and rattle and squeak until the last fish is cleaned and cut and cooked and canned and then the whistles scream again and the dripping smelly tired Wops and Chinamen and Polaks, men and women struggle out and droop their ways up the hill into the town and Cannery Row becomes itself again - quiet and magical. (J. St.)
2. "What sort of a place is Dufton exactly?"
"A lot of mills. And a chemical factory. And a Grammar school and a war memorial and a river that runs different colours each day. And a cinema and fourteen pubs. That's really all one can say about it." (J.Br.)
3. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed. (A. T.)
4. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his hands, and splashed him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot. (D.)
5. Secretly, after the nightfall, he visited the home of the Prime Minister. He examined it from top to bottom. He measured all the doors and windows. He took up the flooring. He inspected the plumbing. He examined the furniture. He found nothing. (L.)
6. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put the key into his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (D.)
7. "Well, guess it's about time to turn in." He yawned, went out to look at the thermometer, slammed the door, patted her head, unbuttoned his waistcoat, yawned, wound the clock, went to look at the furnace, yawned and clumped upstairs to bed, casually scratching his thick woolen undershirt. (S.L.)