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ГоловнаЕкономіка (різне) → Міжнародне економічне середовище - Курсова робота

Міжнародне економічне середовище - Курсова робота

international economic environment, it is necessary to note that fact, that according to the system analysis influence, that according to the system analysis influence of each of factors of system can make rather essential influence on all system as a whole. Taking into account it, each of elements demands careful research and the analysis that demands to separate the given elements on separate subsystems.
The geographical environment of the IER.
The main conditions and factors which influence on development of the IER is the arrangements of natural resources connected to non-uniformity, with presence or absence resources in the different countries. Presence of resources closely connecting with a variety of climatic conditions, which assists development of the international division of labor, and accordingly, plays a significant role in developments of the IER.
For example: in the countries with warm climate are collect two crops; the sea countries establish between themselves economic relations by sea transport; the countries of one continent use automobile and a railway transportation. Not less important role is played by geopolitics arrangement of the country. It is arrangement in relation to other countries on a way or on crossing of various interests of subjects of the world economy. The countries, which are on crossing of such ways, specialize on granting of intermediary services of financial, commercial and transport types. [20, 147p]
The political-legal environment
The Political-legal environment influences on IER not so by way of conditions and factors of their existence as by way of their development. World policy is the original mechanism of satisfaction and the coordination of interests of subjects of the IER.
The world policy is a set of methods and means of the purposes directed on achievement and problems, which follow from interests of the IER. One of the basic political interests of each country is progressing from own economy and own policy, which depends on different internal and external factors.
For example: If the external economic activities will be successful the national economy will be better to develop, the country will be richer, the standard of life of the population will be raised.
To the important political interests concern:
- possession of the newest information;
- the most modern technologies;
- development of social and cultural sphere;
- a raising of the general prestige.
The economic environment
A subsystem of the economic environment in the IER play not less important role. So, the expert from the international marketing should teach economy of each country, which interests it, if he planning to go on foreign markets. It is important, that researches of the different countries were based on the analysis of the materials.
The primary goal in research of the economic environment is studying the characteristics of the markets or their features. In other words, classification of the world market behind the groups of the countries similar economic environment.
The appeal of the country as export market is defined by two characteristics. First of them is a structure of a facilities. It defines needs of the country for the goods and services and levels of incomes and employment.
There are four types of economic structures:
- The countries with economy such as a subsistence economy
- Countries-exporters of raw material
- The countries which industrially develop
- Industrial advanced countries.
The second economic parameter is the character of distribution of profits in the country. On the distribution of profits influence not only the features of economic structure of the country but its political system too. By the character of distribution of profits of the country is possible to classify it on such groups: the countries with very low level of family incomes; the countries with mainly low level of family incomes; the countries with very low and very high levels of family incomes; the countries with low, average and high levels of family incomes; the countries with mainly average level of incomes.
The welfare environment
The Welfare environment is formed much slowly than other environments of the IER.
The estimation of environment basis on:
- achievements of higher general standard of living and reduction of the differences between the "rich" and "poor" countries;
- the one approach to social policy;
- formations of new thinking;
- Manufacturing uniform norms of behavior in business, business ethics and in management;
- the peace decision of the national and interethnic problems.
The information-technical environment
One more important element of the IER is the information-technical environment. Its studying are included with the analysis of development of economy and information communications as at the level of separate subjects of the IER.
The analysis of the technological environment provides changes during a scientific and technical competition, provides forecasting of an opportunity of new means and technologies or an opportunity of nonconventional use of known technologies, etc.
As a whole, the analysis of the external technological environment enables to define anorientation of influence of economic, political, market, social, technological, competitive and international factors on conditions of functioning of objects of management. It facilitates search of answers to a question on what changes in an external environment will affect the current strategy. Which of them will cause threat for its validity and which will facilitate achievements of the strategic purposes of the subject of the IER [21, 39p].
One of the main driving forces of market transformations in Ukraine is close co-operation with industrially advanced states. First, in these countries there is wide experience of market managing which can be used in Ukraine, adapted to its specific conditions.
Second, adjustment of economic co-operation with these countries deduces the Ukrainian goods and services on the powerful, exacting and modern markets. The competition on which will force our businessmen to aspire to qualitatively new level of production in view of expenses, quality, design, marketing, etc.
Expansion and a deepening of contacts to industrially advanced states will stimulate economic reforms in Ukraine.
Thirdly, relations with the western states create opportunities of reception and direct financial support for formation of a market infrastructure in Ukraine (small privatization, development of business, preparation and retraining of personnel).
It is necessary to note, that all listed forms of economic dialogue have found the embodiment in practice of foreign economic relations of Ukraine with the advanced countries. But it is only the first step in world economy for Ukraine, and Ukraine demands the important amplification of interaction with the Western world.